An E. Government Of European Russia, bordering on Kazan, Samara, Saratov, Penza, and Nizhegorod; area, 19,108 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,205,881. The surface consists generally of a plain, with hills toward the east. The government is drained in the east by the Volga, and in the west by its tributary the Sura. Gypsum, alabaster, limestone, sulphur, and naphtha are found. The soil is fertile, producing grain, hemp, flax, hay, and tobacco. Leather, woollen and linen cloth, tallow, potash, and glass are manufactured. The inhabitants belong chiefly to the Greek church, but there are a few other Christians, and a large number of Mohammedans.
A City, the capital of the government, on the right bank of the Volga, 105 m. S. S. W. of Kazan, and 435 m. E. S. E. of Moscow; pop. in 1867, 24,607. It stands in the midst of a wide and fertile plain, and contains 16 churches, two convents, and a monument to the historian Karamsin. It has manufactories of soap and candles, and an important trade in grain and fish.