Sir Henry Havelock, a British soldier, born at Bishop Wearmouth, Durham, April 5, 1795, died near Lucknow, India, Nov. 25, 1857. Ho was educated at the Charterhouse school. In 1813 he began the study of the law, but in 1815 obtained a commission in the army, and in 1823 was sent to India. He distinguished himself in the Burmese war of 1824, and at its conclusion was sent on a mission to the court of Ava, and in 1827 published "The History of the Ava Campaigns." In 1828 he was promoted to a captaincy, and accompanied the army for the invasion of Afghanistan as staff officer of Sir Willoughby Cotton. He was at the storming of Ghuznee and the occupation of Cabool, and wrote a "Narrative of the War in Afghanistan in 1838-'9 " (2 vols. 8vo, London, 1840). He afterward distinguished himself in Afghanistan, in the Mahratta campaign, and in that against the Sikhs. In 1843 he was appointed Persian interpreter to the commander-in-chief, and brevetted as lieutenant colonel, and at the conclusion of the Sutlej campaign was appointed deputy adjutant general at Bombay. In 1849 he went to Europe for his health, and returned to Bombay in 1851, and became in succession brevet colonel, quartermaster general, and adjutant general.
In the expedition sent to Persia in 1856, he commanded the troops at the taking of Moham-merah. He returned to Bombay when peace was concluded, and sailed for Calcutta, but was wrecked on the voyage (April, 1857) off the coast of Ceylon. Reaching Calcutta while the sepoy mutiny was at its height, he was at once despatched to Allahabad to take command of a column destined for the relief of Cawnpore, which was then besieged by the Nana Sahib. He left Allahabad in the beginning of July with about 1,200 men, and, having been joined by a reenforcement which raised his strength to nearly 2,000, encountered and routed 3,500 mutineers at Futtehpoor, and on the 16th defeated the Nana before Cawnpore. The Nana having tied on the following day, Havelock entered the city, to find that the surviving Europeans had been massacred on the 15th. From Cawnpore Havelock followed the Nana to Bithoor, defeated him, and burned the place. He then pushed on toward Luck-now, where the garrison, under Inglis, was closely beset.
Having crossed the Ganges on the 25th, he was opposed at Onao by the enemy, over whom he gained a brilliant victory (July 29). On the same day he defeated the mutineers again at Busserut-Gunge; but a few days afterward, finding his force reduced to about 1,300 men, and being encumbered with the sick and wounded, he had to retreat and wait for reenforcements. The enemy immediately reoocupied Busserut-Gunge, and Havelock returned twice and drove them out. After the third attack (Aug. 12) he recrossed the Ganges to Cawnpore, having now only 1,000 men. Joining Gen. Neill at that place, he marched against the Nana, who had reentered Bithoor, and routed him, Aug. 16. On Sept. 15 Gen. Outram reached Cawnpore with 1,700 men. His rank was higher than Havelock's, but he relinquished to the latter the chief command; and on the 19th Havelock, now major general, again set out for Lucknow, Outram accompanying the force as a volunteer. After a series of battles he reached that city on the 25th, and fought his way with a loss of over 500 men into the residency, where Inglis was shut up. Outram now took the command.
Under him, seconded by Havelock, the garrison and their relievers had to withstand a siege until the arrival of Sir Colin Campbell enabled them to retire to Cawnpore. The residency was evacuated Nov. 22, but Havelock, whose strength had been broken by sickness and exposure, died of dysentery three days afterward. Previous to his death the commander-in-chief had conferred on Havelock the "good service pension" of £100 a year. A baronetcy having been conferred on him the day after his death, the title, together with an annuity of £1,000, was given to his eldest son, Henry Marshman Havelock (born Aug. 6, 1830), who had been with his father in Persia, and during the campaign against the sepoys, in which he was twice wounded. An annuity of £1,000 was also granted to his widow, who was a daughter of the missionary Dr. Marshman. - See J. C. Marshman's "Memoirs of Havelock" (2d ed., London, 1870).