Sir John Moore, a British general, eldest son of the preceding, born in Glasgow, Nov. 13, 1701, fell in battle at Corunna, Spain, Jan. 10, 1809. He was educated chiefly on the continent while his father was travelling with the duke of Hamilton. He received a commission in the army in 1776, and served in Minorca and afterward in America till 1783, when his regiment was disbanded. He held a seat in parliament for a short time. In 1787 he was made a major, and in 1790 he became lieutenant colonel of his regiment, which he accompanied in 1793 to Gibraltar. In 1794 he was sent to Corsica, where he distinguished himself and was wounded. He was made brigadier general in 1795, and in 1790 took part in the capture of the island of St. Lucia, West Indies, of which he was made governor. He completely subdued the bands of insurgent negroes, but ill health obliged him to return home in 1797. During the Irish rebellion of 1798 he served on the staff of Sir Ralph Aber-cromby, and was promoted to the rank of major general. In June, 1799, he accompanied the duke of York on his disastrous expedition to Holland, and was severely wounded. In the Egyptian expedition in 1801 he received a sabre wound in the chest and a bullet in the thigh. On the surrender of Alexandria he returned to England and was knighted.
He afterward went to Sicily, and thence, in May, 1808, at the head of about 10,000 men, to Sweden to assist in the defence of that country against Napoleon. He had difficulty with Gus-tavus Adolphus IV., returned with his troops to England, and was sent to Portugal, where, after the expulsion of the French, he was appointed to the command of the army intended to cooperate with the Spanish forces in the peninsula. He advanced from Lisbon in October, 1808, but discovered that the patriotic zeal which had been expected did not exist, and the Spanish forces were defeated at all points. He lingered awhile at Salamanca; but Napoleon at the head of a large force, supported by the whole of the French armies in the peninsula, was advancing to surround him. His retreat, which began Dec. 11, was through a mountainous and dreary region. The British rear guard quitted Astorga Dec. 31, and, having three times checked their pursuers, joined the main army at Lugo, where for two days battle was offered to Soult by Moore, but not accepted.
The retreat commenced afresh, and they reached Corunna Jan. 11, 1809, and five days afterward repulsed the enemy in the battle in which their commander fell by a cannon shot. (See Corunna.) Soult caused a monument to be erected to his memory, which is also preserved in the well known lines written upon his burial by Charles Wolfe. The British parliament had a monument erected to him in St. Paul's cathedral; and his native city raised a bronze statue to his memory at a cost of £3,000.