Sir Thomas Erskine May, an English author," born in 1815. In 1831 he was appointed assistant librarian of the house of commons, and was gradually promoted until in 1871 he became clerk of the house. He was knighted in 1866. In 1844 he published a "Treatise on the Laws, Privileges, Proceedings, and Usage of Parliament," which is the acknowledged parliamentary text book, and has been often reprinted and translated into foreign languages. He has also published several other works on: the practice and mode of procedure in the house of commons. In 1854 he collected and reduced to writing, for the first time, the "Rules, Orders, and Forms of Proceeding of the House of Commons," which were adopted and ordered to be printed by the house. In 1861-'3 he published "The Constitutional History of England since the Accession of George III., 1700-1800" (a continuation of Hallam's work on that subject), which was reprinted in the United States and translated into French and German, and of which a third edition with a supplementary chapter appeared in 1871. He has also published the "History of Democracy in Europe".