Sir William Dugdale, an English antiquary, born in Shustoke, Warwickshire, Sept. 12, 1605, died there, Feb. 10, 1686. He was educated partly in the free school of Coventry, partly by his father, was made pursuivant at arms extraordinary under the title of Blanch Lyon in 1638, became garter principal king at arms in 1677, and was knighted. In 1641 exact drafts of all the monuments in Westminster abbey and in many of the churches of England, with copies of their inscriptions, were made under his superintendence and deposited in Sir Christopher Hatton's library. With Roger Dodsworth he projected the publication of the charters and descriptions of all the monasteries of the kingdom; and he collected from the Bodleian and other Oxford libraries, from the tower records, the Cottonian library, and the papers of Andre Duchesne, materials for the work, the first volume of which, in Latin, was published in London in 1655, under the title of Monasticon Anglicanum; vols. ii. and iii. were issued in 1661 and 1673; a new enlarged and illustrated edition, in 6 vols, crown folio, was published in 1817-'30. This edition was reprinted at London in 8 vols. fol. in 1846. Several abridgments of the work have been made in English. Among Dugdale's other contributions to history are the "Antiquities of Warwickshire" (fol., 1656), one of the best works of the kind ever published; "History of St. Paul's Cathedral" (fol., 1658); "History of Im-banking and Drayning of divers Fenns and Marshes" (fol., 1662); "Origines Juridicales, or Historical Memoirs of the English Laws, Courts of Justice, Forms of Trial, Punishment in Cases Criminal, Law Writers," etc. (1666); "The Baronage of England, or an Historical Account of the Lives and most memorable Actions of our English Nobility " (3 vols. fol., 1675-'6); " A Short View of the late Troubles in England" (Oxford, 1681); "Ancient Usage in bearing of such Ensigns of Honor as are commonly called Arms " (Oxford, 1681); "A Perfect Copy of all Summons of the Nobility to the Great Councils and Parliaments of this Realme, from the XLIX. of Henry the IIId. until these present Times" (London, 1685). Dugdale also completed the 2d volume of Sir Henry Spelman's Concilia. His "Life, Diary, and Correspondence," with an index to his MS. collections, many of which are preserved in the Ashmolean museum at Oxford, was published at London in 1827 by William Hamper. DIGONG, a herbivorous cetacean, of the genus dugungus (Lacepede) or halicore (Hliger), the only genus of its family, and the only undisputed species of the genus; the Malay name is duyong, and the scientific halicore Indicus (Desm.) or H. dugung (F. Cuvier). The general shape is fish-like; the head is small in proportion to the body, and separated from it by a slight cervical depression; there is no dorsal fin, and the horizontal tail is crescent-shaped; there are no posterior limbs, but the anterior are like cetacean paddles without any trace of nails or division into fingers.
The upper lip is very large, thick, obliquely truncated, forming a blunt snout such as would be made by cutting off an elephant's trunk near the mouth; the anterior portion is covered with soft papillae, with a few stiff bristles; the lips have a corneous edging which assists it in tearing sea weeds from the bottom. In the old animal the incisors are two above and none below, large, but nearly covered by the tumid and movable lip; in the young, the upper permanent incisors are preceded by two deciduous ones, and there are six or eight lower incisors which fall and are not succeeded by permanent ones. The molars in the adult are 2/2-2/2, simple and elliptical, in the young 6/6-6/6, far back on the horizontal portion of the jaw; the grinding surface presents an outer rim of enamel, with the central ivory portion slightly depressed; they have no proper roots, and grow as long as they can be of use to the animal. The skin is thick and smooth, with a few scattered bristles; the color is bluish above and white beneath; the mamma) are two, and pectoral; the fins are used not only for swimming, but for crawling along the bottom. The cranial bones are dense and large, with loose connections where any sutures exist.
The intermax-illaries are very large, extending back as far as the middle of the temporal fossae, and bent down at a right angle over the symphysis of the lower jaw, terminating nearly on a level with its lower margin; this is necessary for the accommodation of the incisors, one of which is in each intermaxillary; for this reason also the nostrils are displaced upward, different from the allied manatee, so that their opening is turned up as in the typical cetacea; indeed, this animal comes nearer than its congener to the whales in its forked tail, absence of nails, and superior opening of the nostrils. The whole skull (and especially the frontal bones) is comparatively short; the parietal crests are widely separated; there is no bony tentorium, no sella turcica, very few and small openings in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone, and the optic foramina are converted into a long and narrow canal. The lower jaw corresponds to the angle of the intermaxilla-ries, and is bent downward at the symphysis;• on its anterior surface are three or four rough and shallow alveoli, sometimes containing rudimentary incisors.
The cervical vertebrae are 7, separate; the dorsals 18, with spinous processes bent back and elongated from the first to the last, and of the same length as the transverse; the lumbar 3, with long spinous and transverse processes; one sacral, to which rudimentary pelvic bones are suspended; caudals about 24, with chevron bones for the anterior three fourths, and becoming flattened posteriorly. The ribs are 18, less thick and dense than those of the manatee, the first 3 attached by cartilages to the sternum; the shoulder blade is large, with the anterior angle rounded, the posterior extended backward with a concave margin; the spine is prominent, and the acromion and coracoid processes are pointed; the humerus is short, thick, with a prominent deltoid ridge; the radius and ulna are very short, rounded, anchylosed at each end; the carpal bones are 4, in two rows; the thumb is rudimentary, its metacarpal bone small and pointed; the other metacarpals are flattened, with three-jointed phalanges. The tongue is thick, the anterior upper surface with cuticular spines, and on each side at the base a horny, retroverted, pointed process.
The stomach is divided into two portions, the cardiac large and globular, the pyloric narrower; at the constriction between the two are two tubular caecal prolongations as in some pachyderms, and at the cardiac end is a rounded glandular mass as in some rodents; the intestines are 14 times as long as the body, and the caecum is simple and heart-shaped. The liver is transversely oblong, with one large and three small lobes; the gall bladder is present, elongated, receiving bile directly from the hepatic ducts; the spleen is very small and rounded. The heart has its ventricles deeply cleft, but not affecting the circulation; the capacity of the pulmonary artery is very great, to accommodate the delay of the blood in the lungs during submersion. The lungs are very long, flattened, one fourth as long as the body; the superficial air cells are large, the dorsal extent is great, the trachea divides high up, and the bronchi are long, as in marine turtles; the cartilages of the bronchial tubes are continued spirally into each other.
The sense of smell must be dull; the eye is very small and convex, with a nictitating membrane beside the lids; the external orifice of the ear is hardly perceptible; the nasal openings are two parabolic slits, whose semilunar edge acts as a valve; the interior of the cheeks, according to F. Cuvier, is entirely covered with strong hairs. The usual length of the dugong is from 8 to 10 ft., though it has been seen as long as 20 ft.; it is found in the seas of the East Indies, especially in the Malayan archipelago, never on land, rarely if ever in fresh water, but generally in troops where the depth is not more than three fathoms. Its food consists of fuci and algae, and it browses on the marine vegetation as a cow-does on land. It yields little or no oil, but is hunted by the Malays for its flesh, which resembles young beef, and is tender and palatable. It is generally speared, and at night, especially during the northern monsoon, at the mouths of rivers, when the sea is calm. The affection of the mother for her young is very remarkable. In the Red sea is a species called H. tabernaculorum by Ruppell, from his belief that the Hebrews covered with its skin their tabernacle and sacred ark; this is generally considered a mere variety.
An allied fossil genus, halitherium (Kaup), is found in the tertiary calcareous deposits of Europe. (See Manatee.)