I. A geographical designation applied to that part of India lying between the upper courses of the Sutlej and the Jumna, but not now coterminous with any political division, being for the most part a plain sloping from N. E. to S. W., and having an area of about 17,000 sq. m. In the extreme northeast a spur of the Himalaya, which divides the head waters of the Sutlej from those of the Jumna, projects into the territory, which is bounded N. and S. by certain outlying districts of the Punjaub, E. by the Northwest Provinces, and W. by Bhawalpoor. It comprises the Punjaub districts of Ambala, Loo-diana, Ferozepoor, Sirsa, Hissar, and Kurnal, as well as nine independent native Cis-Sutlej states in subsidiary alliance with the British government, as follows: Patiala, area 5,412 sq. m., pop. 1,650,000; Jhind, 863 sq. m., pop. 189,475; Nabha, 863 sq. m., pop. 227,-155; Kalsia, 155 sq. m., pop. 62,000; Maler-Kotla, 165 sq. m., pop. 46,200; Furidkot, 643 sq. m., pop. 68,000; Dyalgurh, Mumdot, and Raikot. Separate from the group, on the banks of the Beas, but usually classed with the Sikh states of Sirhind, is the state of Kapur-thala, with an area of 598 sq. m.; pop. 253,-293. The Sikhs predominate, except in Maler-Kotla, which is Mohammedan, and Furidkot, where the ruler is a Jat. Sirhind is traversed by the Saraswati, Ghaggar, and other affluents of the Sutlej, but, although fertile, requires additional irrigation, which will be supplied by the canal system now in process of construction by the government, to have a total length of 554 m.
The Feroze canal, in the S. part of Sirhind, was originally constructed from the Jumna to Hissar by Feroze Shah (1351-87), in order to water his hunting grounds, and has been restored by the British. The railway from Delhi to Lahore crosses Sirhind. Those portions of the Punjaub directly subject to the government of India were mainly acquired during the Sikh wars. The sovereign states were guaranteed their independence, under British protection, by treaty with Runjeet Singh in 1809.
A Town In The Sirhind State Of Patiala, lat. 30° 36' N, lon. 76° 25' E.,' founded by Feroze Shah in 1357, and once an important city, but subjected to repeated captures during the Sikh wars, and now largely in ruins. It is on the line of the Delhi railway.