Smyth, a S. W. county of Virginia, bounded S. E. by the Iron mountain range and drained by the head streams of Holston river; area, about 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,898, of whom 1,244 were colored. The surface is an elevated valley between the Iron mountain range and Walker's mountain; the soil is very fertile. Limestone, gypsum, and salt are found. It is traversed by the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 44,681 bushels of wheat, 96,829 of Indian corn, 66,323 of oats, 3,327 tons of hay, 1,575 lbs. of tobacco, 10,514 of wool, 64,910 of butter, 26,820 of cheese, 3,113 of flax, and 9,897 of honey. There were 1,595 horses, 1,846 milch cows, 3,193 other cattle, 4,553 sheep, and 4,059 swine. Capital, Marion.

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I. William Henry

William Henry, a British naval officer, born in Westminster, Jan. 21, 1788, died near Aylesbury, Sept. 9, 1865. He entered the navy in 1805, and rendered important aid in the defence of Cadiz in 1810. He became lieutenant in 1813, and soon afterward was appointed to a command in the flotilla under Sir Robert Hall detailed for the defence of Sicily. By order of the lords of the admiralty he made an elaborate survey of Sicily and the adjacent islands, which occupied him for several years, and resulted in the publication by the admiralty of an atlas of Sicily. As an accompaniment to this, he published a " Memoir descriptive of the Resources, Inhabitants, and Hydrography of Sicily and its Islands, interspersed with Antiquarian and other Notices" (4to, 1824). He afterward completed the survey of the shores of the Adriatic, and was employed in 1823 and 1824 in a survey of the coasts of Sardinia, and published a " Sketch of the present State of the Island of Sardinia " (8vo, 1828). He attained the rank of post captain in February, 1824, and settled soon after at Bedford, where he built a small observatory, and in 1844 published a " Cycle of Celestial Objects, for the use of Naval, Military, and Private Astronomers " (2 vols. 8vo). In 1853 he attained the rank of rear admiral, and in 1857 he was appointed hydrographer to the admiralty.

His most valuable work is entitled " The Mediterranean, a Memoir, Physical, Historical, and Nautical" (8vo, 1854), in which he gives in systematic and condensed form the results of his numerous surveys and observations on the physical geography of that sea. He also wrote "Sidereal Chromatics" (1864), and "The Sailor's Word Book " (1867).

II. Charles Piazzi

Charles Piazzi, son of the preceding, has held the post of astronomer royal for Scotland. In 1856 he transported a largo collection of meteorological, magnetical, and astronomical instruments to the peak of Teneriffe, where he selected two stations, one 8,840, and the other 10,700 ft. above the sea, and obtained important results detailed in his "Teneriffe, an Astronomer's Experiment " (London, 1858). He has since written "Three Cities in Russia" (1862); " Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid " (1864; new ed., 1874); "Life and Work at the Great Pyramid" (1867); "On the Antiquity of Intellectual Man, from a Practical and Astronomical Point of View " (1868); and "Equal Surface Projection for Maps of the World" (1871). He maintains that the pyramids are memorials of a system of weights and measures intended to be perpetual.