Southampton, a S. E. county of Virginia, bordering on North Carolina, bounded E. by the Blackwater river and S. W. by the Meher-rin, and intersected by the Nottaway; area, 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,285, of whom 6,795 were colored. The surface is nearly level and diversified by large forests of cypress and pine, and the soil is tolerably productive. Tar and turpentine are largely exported. It is traversed by the Seaboard and Roanoke and the Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 218,858 bushels of Indian corn, 13,683 of oats, 24,927 of sweet potatoes, 3,587 lbs. of wool, and 18,-660 of butter. There were 909 horses, 1,385 milch cows, 3,308 other cattle, 2,576 sheep, and 12,978 swine. Capital, Jerusalem.

Southampton #1

Southampton, a seaport town of Hampshire, England, and a county of itself, on the peninsula formed by the estuary of the river Itchen and the larger estuary of the Test, called the Southampton water, 70 m. S. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 53,741. The Southampton water varies in breadth from 1½ to 2 m., and extends inland from Calshot castle, 7 m. below Southampton, to Bed Bridge, 4 m. above. The entrance is well sheltered by the isle of Wight, and the channel is deep and straight, with good anchorage. It has the advantage of four tides in the 24 hours; a peculiarity caused by the isle of Wight intercepting a portion of the tidal wave in its progress both ways through the English channel. The mean rise of the spring tides is 18 ft., and of the neap tides 8 ft. The town is well built, and supplied with pure spring water from an artesian well 910 ft. deep. It has a well wooded park of 365 acres, 5 parish churches, 13 other churches, a public library and museum, and several charitable, literary, and scientific institutions. Among the noteworthy public buildings are the custom house, the ordnance survey office, the royal Victoria hospital for 1,200 invalid soldiers, and the royal southern yacht club house.

For many years Southampton was mainly a watering place, but since the opening of the docks in 1842 it has become the principal port of departure for several East and West India, China, Australia, North German, and American steamship lines, besides having a large trade coastwise and with the continent. There are five docks, paved with granite and lined with warehouses, viz.: one of 10 acres, two of 16 acres each, and two of 22 acres each; and further shipping accommodations, begun in 1873, include a quay 1,500 ft. long on the right bank of the Itchen, which is ultimately to form the E. arm of a dock of 30 acres. The entrances in 1873 were 6,920 British vessels, tonnage 852,461, and 578 foreign vessels, tonnage 376,-964; clearances, 6,839 British vessels, tonnage 832,017, and 543 foreign vessels, tonnage 347,-710. The total value of exports was £11,459,-889. The principal industries are brewing, sugar refining, iron casting, coach building, and ship building; many large steamships have been built here. The annual cattle fair is important. - Southampton is a very ancient place. Remains of the Roman camp Clausentum, 1 m. N. E. of the present town, are still seen. The bar across High street and the W. and S. gates, now standing, are parts of the Saxon walls around the old town.

In 980 the Danes sacked the place. After 1016 it was the occasional residence of Canute, and the shore is said to be the scene of his rebuke to his courtiers. The town was destroyed by French, Spanish, and Genoese allies in 1338, was rebuilt and fortified by Richard II., and was erected into a county of itself by Henry VI.