I. James

James, an English naturalist, born in Lambeth, March 21, 1757, died Oct. 25, 1822. In early life he was a painter of portraits and miniatures, and later took up natural history in connection with his art. He published " English Botany, or colored Figures of all the Plants Natives of Great Britain," with descriptions by Sir J. E. Smith, M. I). (36 vols, royal 8vo, 1792-1807; supplement by his son James De Carle Sowerby, 4 vols., 1815-'49; new ed. by J. T. B. Syme, 10 vols., 1863-70); " Colored Figures of English Fungi or Mushrooms, with Descriptions " (3 vols, fob, 1797-1809); "British Mineralogy" (5 vols. 8vo, 1804-'17); "Exotic Mineralogy " (2 vols. roy. 8vo, 1811-'17); "British Miscellany" (animal subjects, 12 parts, 1804-6); and " Mineral Conchology of Great Britain " (6 vols., 600 colored plates, 1812-'41; vols. v. and vi. by his son James De Carle), He was a fellow of the Linnaean and geological societies. H. George Brettingham, son of the preceding, born in Lambeth, Aug. 12, 1788, died July 26, 1854. He assisted his father in the entomological portion of his works, and published " Genera of Recent and Fossil Shells" (42 parts 8vo, 264 colored plates, 1822-34; drawings and engravings by his father and his brother James De Carle), and "Species Conchylio-rum, or Original Descriptions and Observations of all the Species of Recent Shells with their Varieties" (4to, 1830, unfinished).

III. George Brettingham

George Brettingham, son of the preceding, born March 25, 1812. He has published " Manual of Conchology," with upward of 650 figures of shells on 24 copper plates (8vo, 1839; 4th ed., revised, 1852); " Conchological Illustrations" (6 vols. 8vo, 1841); "Thesaurus Conchyliorum, or Figures and Descriptions of Shells" (30 parts imp. 8vo, 1842-'71); "Popular British Conchology" (16mo, 1854; new ed., 1866); "Popular History of the Aquarium" (16mo, 1857; new ed., 1865); "Illustrated Companion to Kingsley's Glaucus" (1858); "Illustrated Index of British Shells" (royal 8vo, 24 plates, 1859); and "Labels for the recognized Species of British Shells" (1861). He also furnished drawings for Reeve's " Elements of Conchology" and "Land and Fresh-water Mol-lusks of the British Isles".