Squash Bug, a well known hemipterous insect, the coreus tristis (De Geer). It is about throe quarters of an inch long, with a triangular head; the general color is ochre yellow, rendered dusky above by numerous black dots; the sharp edges of the abdomen project beyond the closed wing covers; on the back of the head, behind the eyes, are two glassy raised eyelets. They appear by the last of Juno or beginning of July, when the squash vines have put out a few leaves, pair, and soon be-gin to lay their eggs; they conceal themselves by day, and in the evening fasten their eggs in little patches on the under side of the leaves by a gummy substance; the eggs are soon hatched, and the young, pale ashy and with large antennae, appear in successive broods during summer, pass through their last change, attain their full size in September and October, and pass the winter and spring in a torpid state in crevices. The loss of sap from the punctures of these insects causes the leaves to become brown, dry, and wrinkled, when they are deserted for fresh ones. When irritated, and particularly when crushed, they give out a strong, nauseous odor. It is best to destroy them before they have laid their eggs.
SQUID, a cephalopodous mollusk, of the di-branchiate order, tribe decapoda, family teu-thidce, of which the typical genus is loligo (Lam.). The body is elongated, tapering behind, with a pair of terminal fins; branchiae two; arms eight, with two rows of pedunculated suckers, and two very long tentacles; the internal shell, or gladius, is reduced to a horny quill-shaped plate, with two lateral expansions; the ink bag is well developed, and its secretion jet black. They are good swimmers, all marine, and never leave the water; they can creep head down on the cephalic disk; the ova are enclosed in long, gelatinous, cylindrical sheaths, called sea grapes, and may be nearly 40,000 in number; the sight is good, and the movements are rapid. They are sometimes called calama-ries, from the internal pen-like bone and ink bag, and the general cylindrical form like an ancient escritoire. The small species are gregarious, but the large hooked squids are solitary and oceanic. The common squid of the New England coast, the L. [ommastrephes] illecebrosa (Lesueur), is from 0 to 12 in. long; the colors vary rapidly, with the will of the animal, from yellowish white to bluish, violet, brown, red, and orange, in spots or general tint.
They swim rapidly backward by dilating and contracting the sac-like body, and forward by the terminal fin; they devour numbers of small fish and crustaceans, and are eaten by larger fishes, and used as bait by cod fishers. Squids are found from Norway to New Zealand; the L. vulgaris (Lam.), common about the shores of Great Britain, and used in Cornwall as a bait for cod, attains a length of 1 to 1½ ft. The occurrence of large squids on the North American coast has within a few years directed attention to old stories of the gigantic mythical kraken of Pontoppidan. Prof. Steenstrup has collected many instances of gigantic squids on the coasts of northern Europe from 1540 to the present time; they have also been found in tropical and southern waters, and were known to Aristotle and Pliny. It is proved that the sperm whale feeds chiefly upon these largo squids, and many interesting fragments have been obtained from the stomach of this cetacean. In 1872 one was found floating dead on the Grand Banks, 15 ft. long, 42/3 ft. in circumference, and the longest arms 9 ft.; this was probably the architeuthis monachus (Steenstrup), or the sea monk. (See "American Naturalist," February, 1873.) In October, 1873, one was seen, and a piece of an arm cut off, near the coast of Newfoundland; the body was about 10 ft. long, with a diameter of 2½ ft., head 2 ft. long, and caudal fin 22 in. wide.
The creature being wounded attacked the boat, when the fisherman cut off one of the arms with his axe, about 20 ft. long and at least 10 ft. from the body, the whole arm being more than 30 ft., and the total length of the animal about 44 ft. The most characteristic features are: the irregularity of the rows of lingual teeth, the very simple internal shell or pen, embryonic form of caudal fin, and clusters of small suckers and tubercles on long arms; the first three indicate a low rank in the family, below loligo and ommastrephes; it may be a modification of the Jurassic teudopsis preserved by its oceanic habitat to the present time, like other huge marine types having a mesozoic aspect. (See Sea Serpent.) Probably some of these great squids of the genus architeuthis attain a total length of 50 ft., including the long tentacles; the largest known is probably the A. princeps (Verrill), from Newfoundland. SQUIER, Ephraim George, an American archaeologist, born in Bethlehem, N. Y., June 17, 1821. He early became an engineer and a journalist.
In 1845 he made a survey, in conjunction with E. H. Davis, M. D., of the ancient monuments of the Mississippi valley, the results of which were published in 1848 in "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley," being vol. i. of the "Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge;" and in 1848 he explored the aboriginal monuments of the state of New York. In 1849 he was appointed charge d'affaires to Guatemala; in 1853 assisted in the survey of an interoceanic railway route through Honduras, for the construction of which he formed a company; in 1863-'4 was United States commissioner to Peru to adjust claims, devoting many months to exploring the ancient monuments of that country; and in 1868 was for a time United States consul general to Honduras. At intervals he has edited newspapers at Albany, N. Y., Chilli-cothe, 0., Hartford, Conn., and New York, and has several times visited Europe. Besides the above mentioned work and numerous archaeological papers contributed to American and European scientific periodicals, he has published "Aboriginal Monuments of the State of New York" (4to, Washington, 1851, being vol. ii. of the "Smithsonian Contributions"); "Antiquities of the State of New York': (8vo, Buffalo, 1851), with a supplement on the antiquities of the west; " Nicaragua, its People, Scenery, Ancient Monuments, and proposed Interoceanic Canal" (2 vols. 8vo, New York and London, 1852); "The Serpent Symbol, or Worship of the Reciprocal Principles of Nature in America" (8vo, New York, 1852); "Notes on Central America," etc. (1854); "Waikna, or Adventures on the Mosquito Shore," under the nom de plume of Samuel A. Bard (12mo, 1855); Question Anglo-Americaine, etc. (8vo, Paris, 1856); " The States of Central America," etc. (8vo, New York, 1857); "Report of the Survey of the Honduras Interoceanic Railway" (4to, .London, 1859); " Translation, with Notes, of the Letter of Don Diego de Palacio (1571) to the Crown of Spain on the Provinces of Guatemala, San Salvador, etc." (New York, 1860); " Monograph of Authors who have written on the Aboriginal Languages of Central America" (1861); "Tropical Fibres and their Economic Extraction " (1861); " Is Cotton King? Sources of Cotton Supply" (1861); "Honduras, Descriptive, Historical, and Statistical" (London and New York, 1870); and " Peru : Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of the Incas" (New York, 1876). Most of his books have been translated into German, French, and Spanish.
Squash Bug (Coreus tristis).
Common Squid of Great Britain (Loligo vulgaris).