Stanko, Or Stanchio Cos (called Meropis in Thucydides, and Nymphcea in Pliny), an island of Asiatic Turkey, in the Aegean sea, near the coast of Asia Minor, in lat. (W. point) 36° 49' 54" N, lon. 26° 53' 49" E.; length about 23 m., circumference 65 m.; area, about 90 sq. m.; pop. about 8,000. It produces silk, salt, cattle, and wine resembling lachryma Christi, and exports fruits and wine to Egypt. The capital of the island, of the same name, in the northeast, has a mixed Greek and Turkish population, is the seat of a Greek bishop and of a Turkish pasha, and contains many relics of the Grecian era. Cos is famous now as it was in antiquity for its fertility, its wines, dyes, and delicate transparent fabrics. Though mountainous in the south and west, the island in its extensive fruitful plains in the north and east still retains that natural productiveness mentioned by Strabo. The ancient city of Cos contained the famous temple of Aesculapius, with its celebrated school of physicians, and its votive anatomical models.

It was colonized by Aeolians, joined the Dorian confederacy, was first fortified by Alcibiades, became a free state under the emperor Claudius, was destroyed by an earthquake, and rebuilt by Antoninus Pius. The island was the birthplace of Apelles, Philetas, and Hippocrates.