A W. County Of Minnesota, intersected by the Pomme do Terre river, a tributary of the Minnesota; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 174. The surface is rolling and is studded with numerous lakes. The soil is productive. The St. Paul and Pacific railroad traverses it.
A N. W. County Of Dakota, bounded S. W. by the Missouri river, recently formed and not included in the census of 1870; area, about 3,100 sq. m. It is mostly occupied by the Plateau du Coteau du Missouri. The N. E. corner is intersected by Mouse river.
The N. E. County Of Washington Territory, bordering on British Columbia and Idaho, bounded S. in part by the Snake river, W. in part by the Cascade mountains, and intersected by the Columbia; area, 28,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 734. Lake Chelan is in the W. part, and the county is watered by Clarke's fork, the Okinakane, Palouse, Spokane, and other streams. There are broad plains and rugged mountains, with some barren places, but the proportion of valuable land is large, and much of it is very fertile. The climate is mild. There are gold mines on the bars of the Columbia and lateral streams. The chief productions in 1870 were 8,791 bushels of wheat, 12,504 of oats, 3,S25 of potatoes, and 791 tons of hay. There were 415 horses, 1,100 cattle, and 485 swine. Capital, Colville.
John, an American inventor, born in New York in 1749, died in Hoboken, N. J., in 1838. He early engaged in solving the problem of steam navigation, and in a memorial to the legislature of New York in 1789 stated that he had perfected his plans. In 1804 he launched a propeller, using the screw, and in 1805 he employed twin screws. He completed the steamboat Phoenix in 1807, and being prevented by Fulton's monopoly from navigating the Hudson, he sent the vessel to sea and up the Delaware. Her engines were high-pressure condensing, and the boilers of the kind now called sectional. Neither these nor either single or twin screws were generally employed by engineers until many years afterward. In 1812 he designed a cir-cular iron-clad or revolving steam battery with armor plating, substantially the same as those recently designed by the late John Elder, and like those now constructing for the Russian navy; and in the same year he published a pamphlet on railroads, indicating the mode of applying steam, calculating their cost, and predicting the speed of trains.
He planned the Camden and Amboy railroad.
Robert Livingston, son of the preceding, born in Hoboken, N. J., in 1788, died there, April 20, 185G. He had charge of his father's steamboat the Phoenix in its passage to the Delaware, and in 1808 introduced concave water lines in her hull, the first application of the wave line to ship building; and he was afterward largely engaged in building steamboats. In 1813-14 he invented and sold to the government percussion elongated shells for smooth-bore guns; in 1818 he burned anthracite coal in a cupola furnace, and soon after used it in his steamers. In 1822 he substituted the skeleton wrought-iron working beam for the heavy cast-iron one before in use; and during the next 27 years he made numerous other improvements in steam machinery and navigation. In 1836 he introduced the T rail on the Camden and Amboy railroad, of which he was president for many years. In 1842 he was commissioned by the United States government to build an iron-plated war steamer or battery, to be shell-proof and driven by screws. (See Iron-Clad Ships.) In consequence of a change of his plan, it was unfinished at his death.
Edwin Augustus, brother of the preceding, born in Hoboken in 1795, died in Paris, France, Aug. 7, 1868. With his brothers he established lines of steam passenger and tow boats on the Hudson and other rivers. He also made several inventions and improvements in machinery and naval architecture. At the opening of the civil war 'he endeavored, in conjunction with his brother James C, to induce the government to take and put in service the iron-clad battery begun by Robert L. Stevens, offering to complete the ship at their own expense, payment only to be made in case of her success. For the purpose of showing the feasibility of their plans, they fitted out the small iron-clad Naugatuck, and sent her into action; she took part in the engagement on the James river, and rendered valuable assistance. The government declined the offer, and Edwin A. Stevens left at his death $1,000,000 for the completion of his brother's plans. The amount proved insufficient, however, and the vessel was sold to the United States navy in November, 1874, by the state of New Jersey, to which he had bequeathed it. Congress having failed to make the appropriation for the purchase, the vessel still remains (1876) in dock at Hoboken. Mr. Stevens possessed an immense fortune.
He endowed the Stevens high school at Hoboken, and at his death left nearly $1,000,000 for the purpose of founding the Stevens institute of technology. (See Hoboken).
Joseph, a Belgian painter, born in Brussels about 1819. He is the son of a French officer, is self-taught, and resides alternately at Paris and Brussels, and is distinguished for his pictures of animals, especially dogs, and also for his genre paintings.
Alfred, a Belgian painter, brother of the preceding, born in Brussels in 1828. He completed his studies under Roqueplan in Paris, and has made himself known by his genre pictures, such as "The Visit," "The Pink Lady," and " The Love of Gold".