Stockholm, a city and the capital of Sweden, in lat. 59° 20' N, Ion. 18° 3' E., 330 m. N. E. of Copenhagen; pop. in 1874, 147,249. It is partly built on islands and intersected by many canals, surrounded on the land side by rocks, forests, and hills, and on the water side by Lake Mselar and the Salt Sjo (Salt lake), an arm of the Baltic. This combination of land and water, together with the magnificent harbor and palace, and other remarkable sights, forms one of the most picturesque panoramas in the world. The city is well built, has several fine squares, and abounds in stately buildings. The royal palace, completed in 1754, consists of a huge quadrangle of solid granite; it is as remarkable for the fitting up of the royal apartments as for its grand and admirable proportions, and the chaste yet massive style of its Italian architecture. It is on the highest and most central of the three islands of the original town, distinctively called the city (Stad), and one of the three main metropolitan divisions. These islands have been enlarged by embankments built on piles, whence the name of Stockholm, meaning an island on piles.
The other two chief divisions are the northern suburb (Norr-malm), the fashionable quarter, and the southern suburb (Sodermalm), that of the working classes; the former is connected with the city by a fine granite bridge, and the latter by several drawbridges, and there is a new line of railway, with remarkable viaducts and tunnels. The principal government offices and mercantile houses are adjacent to the palace and the quay, and the most elegant stores are in Norrmalm. The building next in beauty to the royal palace is the new national museum, at the S. end of the formerly separate island of Blasiiholm, which is now united to Norr-malm. Its front faces the terrace garden of the royal palace, overlooking the harbor; it is 260 ft. long by 170 ft. broad, and 90 ft. high, and has three stories filled with interesting collections, soon to include the picture gallery of the palace. A new building has also been provided for the royal or national library of about 70,000 volumes and 4,000 unique manuscripts, which occupied a space extending over nearly the whole S. E. wing of the palace. There are more than 25 places of worship, chiefly for Lutherans, but including several for other Protestants, one for Catholics, one for Swedenborgians, and a new and handsome synagogue.
The interior of the church of St. Clara is exceptionally fine. The Swedish kings are crowned in the old St. Nicholas church. The most ancient church is that of Solna, with the tomb of Berzelius, and the most picturesque is the Riddarholm, originally a Franciscan convent and now used as a pantheon. In the latter are the armor of Charles IX., attributed to Benvenuto Cellini, the shrine of Gustavus Adolphus, and that of Charles XII. in the opposite Carolin chapel. Bernadotto is buried in the chapel of the present dynasty, adjoining the Gustavan. Other notable buildings are the governor's palace; the houses of parliament, including the Rid-darhus, or house of the nobles and the diet; the royal mint; the exchange; the academy of sciences, with a library of 40,000 volumes, a cabinet of natural historv, and a museum with rich zoological, mineralogical, and geological collections; the geological and technological institutes; the mining academy, recently removed hither from Fahlun; the new-art union and exhibition buildings, with concert rooms; the royal theatre, where Gustavus III. was assassinated in 1792; and the houses in which Swedenborg and other eminent men were born.
The most celebrated educational institution is the medical faculty, the principal one in Sweden, attended by a much larger number of students than that at the university of Upsal. A new free university is projected, and there are three gymnasia, various special schools, a military college, and a high school of artillery, the last near the city at Mariebcrg. No city has a greater variety of rural and waterside pleasure grounds. The most celebrated is the Djurgard or deer park, which occupies almost an entire island opposite the "city," since 18G8 united to the metropolitan district. It is about 3 m. in circumference, and contains the Rosendal palace. The Haga park, a little beyond the observatory, opposite the new cemetery, is studded with islands, has water communication between its different parts and the city, and contains a royal palace. The adjacent park of Carlberg is another delightful summer resort. The park known as the Humlegard (hop garden), W. and N. W. of Norrmalm, has been greatly improved; it contains the new library building and large barracks.
In Berzelius's park is a monument to Berzelius. Among the other numerous monuments in the city are those to Birger Jarl and to Swedish sovereigns.
Royal Palace, Stockholm.
That of Charles XII. was erected in 1868, opposite the palace in the Kungstradgard (king's garden) square. Few cities present greater natural beauties than Stockholm, and in the vicinity are many royal and private summer palaces and villas. The city is also the centre of Swedish industry and trade. It has about 300 manufacturing establishments, chiefly of sugar, tobacco, machinery, cast iron, leather, silk, soap, cloth, and porcelain. It is the principal Swedish port of entry. The imports in 1874 amounted to about $50,000,000, and the exports to $30,000,000; and the customs receipts reached nearly $6,000,000. The entries of British ships alone comprised 38 steamers and 161 sailing vessels. The total inward shipping in the foreign trade includes over 1,500 vessels, besides nearly 10,000 in the coasting trade, and about 60 local steamers. The exports to the United States in 1873-'4, chiefly iron, were valued at $1,063,997 in gold. The harbor accommodates the largest vessels, and is defended by a fortress. - The reputed founder of Stockholm was Birger Jarl, the father and guardian of Waldemar, elected king in 1250. A settlement had been in existence at the spot since the destruction of Sigtuna by Finnish pirates in 1187. It was a powerful stronghold against the devastations of the pirates in all the towns along Lake Maelar, and was frequently besieged.
Stockholm became the residence of the Swedish monarchs soon after Birger's death, though Upsal continued long afterward to bo the seat of government. With Lubeck and Hamburg reciprocity of free trade was established, and soon after with Riga. In 1501 the citadel was held against insurgents by Christina, queen of Denmark, whose husband, King John, ruled over the three united kingdoms of Scandinavia. King John had left his queen in command of a garrison of 1,000 men, whose number, after a siego of eight months, was reduced to about 80. She was compelled to capitulate, May 27, 1502. A still more heroic defence against the Danes under Christian IL was made by Christina Gyllen-stjerna, the widow of the fallen regent Sten Sture. After a terrible siege of four months, the place was surrendered, Sept. 7, 1520, with the solemn guarantee of the king to respect the rights of the inhabitants. A fearful massacre ensued, known as the "blood bath of Stockholm/' Many treaties have been signed here in modern times; in 1855 that with the western powers guaranteeing the integrity of Swedish territories.