Stockton, a city and the capital of San Joaquin co., California, on a level prairie at the head of Stockton slough, a wide and deep arm of the San Joaquin river extending E. from that stream for about 3 m., and on the Central Pacific railroad, 63 m. (direct) E. by N. of San Francisco; pop. in 1860, 3,679; in 1870, 10,066, of whom 4,102 were foreigners, including 1,076 Chinese; in 1875, estimated at 14,000. The Stockton and Copperopolis railroad extends to Milton, Calaveras co., 30 m., and from it branches the Stockton and Visalia railroad, extending to Oakdale, Stanislaus co., 34 m. from Stockton. The Visalia division of the Central Pacific railroad, branching from the main line 9 m. W. of the city, runs S. through the San Joaquin valley for nearly 200 m. A narrow-gauge railroad to lone City, Amador co., about 40 m., will render available the immense coal deposits of that county. Stockton has a good harbor, and the river is navigable to this point from San Francisco at all seasons by vessels of from 150 to 250 tons. In the winter and spring steamers ascend nearly 200 m. above the city. The business blocks are principally of brick. The court house and city hall, near the centre of the city, is surrounded with choice shade trees and shrubbery, as are also many of the residences.
Several of the churches are costly structures. The city is lighted with gas, and is supplied with water through pipes from three artesian wells. It has a volunteer fire department, and a horse railroad. The business of Stockton consists chiefly in furnishing supplies to the farmers of the San Joaquin valley and in the shipment of wheat, wool, and other produce. The shipments of wheat for the three years 1873-5 averaged nearly 3,500,000 bushels, valued at about $3,000,000. The city contains four banking institutions, with an aggregate capital of $1,650,000, including a national gold bank and a savings and loan society. There are two manufactories of carriages, three of agricultural implements, two of sash, blinds, etc, one of paper, several of boots and shoes, saddlery and harness, furniture, tinware, etc, two flouring mills, two iron founderies, three tanneries, and three breweries. Considerable wine is also made here. Stockton is the seat of the state lunatic asylum. It has a high school and 33 other public schools of different grades, three newspapers, each having daily and weekly editions, and 12 churches, viz.: 2 Baptist, 1 Congregational, 1 Episcopal, 1 German Reformed, 1 Jewish, 3 Methodist, 2 Presbyterian, and 1 Roman Catholic. The city was laid out in 1849 and incorporated in 1850.
Richard, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, born near Princeton, N. J., Oct. 1, 1730, died there, Feb. 28, 1781. He graduated at the college of New Jersey, at Newark, in 1748, was admitted to the bar in 1754, became a member of the executive council of New Jersey in 1768, and in 1774 a judge of the supreme court. In 1776 he was elected to congress, and served on the committee appointed to inspect the northern army. After his return to New Jersey he was captured by the British, confined in the common prison at New York, and treated with such severity as ultimately to cause his death.
Robert Field, an American naval officer, grandson of the preceding, born in Princeton, N. J., in 1796, died there, Oct. 7, 1866. He entered the navy in 1810, became a lieutenant in 1814, and in 1821 went to Africa in command of the Erie, and aided the colonization society in procuring the territory forming the present republic of Liberia. On his return he was sent to the West Indies against the pirates. For several years he took an active part in politics as a partisan of Gen. Jackson. In 1838 he served as flag officer, in the Mediterranean, and in 1839 was made a captain and recalled. He was one of the earliest advocates of a steam navy, and drew the plans for the steam sloop of war Princeton, built at Philadelphia in 1842-4, the explosion of one of the guns of which at Washington in 1844 caused the death of five persons, including the secretaries of war and the navy. In October, 1845, he was sent to the Pacific coast, where he took command, and in the following year conquered California and established the authority of the United States, returning overland in 1847. In 1849 he resigned his commission, and in 1851 was elected United States senator.
He promoted the abolition of flogging in the navy, and resigned in 1853. His "Life, Speeches, and Letters" was published in 1856 (New York).