Styria (Ger. Steiermark), a duchy of Austria, bordering on Upper and Lower Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Carniola, Carinthia, and Salzburg; area, 8,671 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,137,990. It is divided into the circles of Gratz, which contains the capital of the same name, Marburg, and Bruck. It is traversed by three chains belonging to the Noric branch of the Alpine system, the highest summits of which are on the N. W. and S. W. frontiers, rising to an elevation of 8,000 ft. and upward. The N. W. part is known as Upper Styria, and the country in the opposite direction as Lower Styria. The surface belongs to the basin of the Danube. The most important streams are the Mur, Enns, Raab, Save, and Drave, all of which except the Raab are navigable for boats. There are numerous small lakes, and hot and mineral springs. Limestone, sulphur, alum, rock salt, gold, silver, lead, copper, cobalt, zinc, and iron ore of superior quality are found. The soil in the valleys is generally fertile, but no surplus of grain is produced. The vine thrives well. The forests cover about half the surface.
The inhabitants are mostly German, but the Winds or Slovens are numerous, constituting about 36 per cent, of the population; nearly all are Roman Catholics. Iron is extensively manufactured, and linen, cotton, woollen, and silk to some extent; but the most important branch of industry is timber. Millions of jewsharps are annually ox-ported. - Under the Romans the eastern part of Styria belonged to the province of Pannonia, and the western to Noricum. Christianity was introduced in the 4th century, but the northern barbarians afterward overran the province. Styria was annexed to Austria in 1192, was subsequently attached to Bohemia, and in 1276 together with other territories surrendered by King Ottocar II. to Rudolph I. of Hapsburg. It subsequently belonged to various branches of that house, until the Styrian lino became the ruling one with the succession of Ferdinand II. to the emperor Matthias in 1619. Ferdinand exterminated Protestantism in the duchy. Under the constitution of Cisleithan Austria the Styrian diet elects 13 members to the Austrian Reichsrath. - See Das Volksleben in Steiermarlc in Charaktev-iiltd Sitteribildern dargestellt, by P. K. Roseg-ger (2 vols., Gratz, 1875).