Suvaroff, properly Snvoroff, Alexei Vasillcviteli, count, and Prince Italiski, a Russian soldier, born Nov. 24, 1729, died in St. Petersburg, May 17, 1800. He entered the army at a very early age, served in the seven years' war, and commanded with success in Poland against the confederates of Bar (1768-72), and subsequently against the Turks, the khan of the Crimea, and the Nogai Tartars, obtaining the rank of general-in-chief in 1783. In the campaign of 1787 against the Turks he raised the siege of Kinburn and was wounded, achieved another victory at Fokshani (July 21, 1789) together with the Austrians, and on Sept. 22 routed the main Turkish army on the banks of the Rimnik, for which he received the title of count, and the surname Rimnikski. After repeated repulses he stormed Ismail in 1790, losing 20,000 men, massacred the Turkish garrison of 30,000 troops, and nearly reduced the town to ashes. He was next governor of Ye-katerinoslav, Taurida, and the conquered territories on the Dniester. In 1794 he defeated Kosciuszko jointly with Fersen (Oct. 10), and carried Praga, a suburb of Warsaw, by assault (Nov. 3), deluging it with blood.
The news of this event he communicated to the empress in the following despatch : "Hurrah! Praga! Suvaroff;" and in reply the empress promoted him in these words: "Bravo! field marshal! Catharine." The caprice of Paul I. drove him from the service in September, 1798; but he was soon reinstated at the request of the emperor Francis of Germany, and in 1799 placed at the head of the united Austrian and Russian armies in Italy. He achieved many brilliant victories over the French, at Cassano, on the Trebbia, and at Novi, for which he was made Prince Italiski. He crossed the Alps to join Korsakoff, at the moment when Masse-na's decisive victory over the latter at Zurich (Sept. 25, 1799) entirely changed the military situation, and he was recalled to Russia with the rank of generalissimo. An ovation prepared for him at St. Petersburg was countermanded by a caprice of the czar, and this undeserved mortification gave the death-blow to Suvaroff's shattered health. His autobiography has been published under the title of Vie de Somoroff tracee par lui-meme, ou collection de ses lettres et de ses ecrits, edited by Glinka (2 vols., Moscow, 1819). One of the best biographies of him is by Polevoi (German ed., Mitau, 1853).