A S. E. Government Of European Russia, bordering on Vladimir, Nizhego-rod, Penza, Saratov, Voronezh, Orel, Tula, and Riazan; area, 25,683 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,150,971. It is level, and partly traversed by steppes in the south. The chief rivers are the Tzna, Moksha, and Vorona, the banks of which are swampy and covered with forests. Grain, hemp, flax, and poppies are raised, especially in the southern part. The other products include timber, peat, iron, saltpetre, and sulphur; and there are many mineral springs. The government is celebrated for its horse markets and studs.
A City, capital of the government, 260 m. S. E. of Moscow; pop. in 1867, 28,617. It is the seat of a bishop, and has many churches, schools, and charitable institutions, and manufactories of tallow, woollens, sail cloth, etc. The annual markets are celebrated. Gardens and fine streets make it one of the pleasantest of provincial cities.