British India A District Of Madras, bounded N. by Trichinopoly and South Arcot, E. and S. E. by the bay of Bengal, S. and S. W. by Madura, and W. by Trichinopoly and the dependent native state of Poodoo-cottah; area, 3,736 sq. m.; pop. in 1872,1,975,-042. There are no important harbors. The country is watered by the Coleroon and Ca-very and their numerous branches. There are 64 irrigation tanks in the district, and extensive works connected with the rivers, so that the entire area of irrigation in 1872-3 was 748,673 acres. The surface consists for the most part of an extensive plain of great fertility. Cotton goods are manufactured, and salt is made in the neighborhood of Point Calymere. The inhabitants are nearly all Hindoos, and their institutions have been more perfectly preserved than in most other parts of India. The district forms the inland boundary of the French coast settlement of Cari-cal. H A city, capital of the district, on a branch of the Cavery, 180 m. S. W. of Madras and 45 m. from the bay of Bengal; pop. about 80,000. It contains two forts, the greater about 4 m. in circumference and the lesser about 1 m., both strong and well constructed. The rajah's palace stands in the centre of the great fort.
The pagoda in the small fort is considered the finest building of the kind in India. The manufactures consist of silk, muslin, and cotton goods. Tanjore was founded about A. D. 214, and became the capital of a Hindoo principality of the same name, which was absorbed by the Mahrattas in the 17th century. The British assumed the government about the year 1800.
The Palace, Tanjore.