Technology (Gr. τεχνή, an art, and λόγος discourse), the systematic knowledge of the theory and practice of the industrial arts. It is divisible into several branches, but chiefly into chemical technology and mechanical technology. Chemical technology embraces those industries which chiefly demand a knowledge of chemistry, such as the manufacture of chemicals, including the various acids and the compounds of soda and potash; the manufacture of soap and candles, glass, and the various kinds of pottery and porcelain; the manufacture of illuminating gas, and the distillation and refining of the waste products of gas works and of crude petroleum; and the distillation and rectification of spirits and the fermentation of wine and beer. Mechanical technology embraces textile manufactures and the mechanic arts in general. In many of the arts a combination of both mechanical and chemical knowledge is required, as in glass making and calico printing. Schools of technology are established independently and also in connection with colleges and universities, not only for the advantage of the general student, but for those who intend to become experts in one or at most a few branches, in which the fundamental principles of the arts are taught, including mathematics, mechanical engineering, natural philosophy, chemistry, and usually mineralogy and geology.
In independent institutions other branches are added.