Old South Gate.
E.; pop. in winter about 100,000. The town stands in a sandy plain, with mountains to the north and east, and a fertile, well cultivated country to the west. It is built in the form of an irregular square, each side of which measures about a mile, and is enclosed by a deep dry ditch and a thick mud wall, flanked at intervals with semicircular projections, and pierced by gates which are always guarded, and are closed after sunset. Inside there are many vacant spaces, gardens, and extensive ruins; but the streets are narrow, irregular, unpaved, and filthy. The houses are badly built and mean in appearance. Outside the walls are suburbs of considerable extent, several large caravansaries, and many enclosed gardens. The principal building of the town is the Ark or royal palace, which occupies a large space adjoining the northern wall, and is fortified. The bazaars are wretchedly kept and dirty. One of the mosques is roofed with plates of gold. In summer the climate is unhealthy, and the monarch and about two thirds of the inhabitants encamp on the plains of Sul-tanieh. On a hill in the neighborhood the shah has a palace and beautiful gardens. Telegraph wires connect Teheran with the Caucasian and Turkish frontiers.
Not far from it are the ruins of the ancient Ullages, the capital of Parthia. - Teheran was unimportant until made the capital of Persia by Aga Mohammed Khan about 1706. A treaty of commerce with England was signed here, Oct. 28, 1841.