Teneriffe (Sp. Tenerifa), one of the largest islands of the Canary group, about 150 m. N. TV. of Cape Bojador, Africa. It is of triangular form, the N. and S. E. sides about 60 m. long, and the TV. side 24 m.; area, about 800 sq. m.; pop. about 95,000. The coasts are steep, high, and broken by deep fissures; there are very few sand beaches, and no port accessible to large vessels which is secure in all weathers; but Santa Cruz, the capital of the island and of the Canaries (pop. about 11,000), has a good harbor. The island is volcanic. A lofty ridge traverses it centrally, and culminates near the W. side in the celebrated peak of Teneriffe or Teyde, 12,182 ft. above the sea. This consists of an enormous dome of trachyte covered with layers of basalt, rising from a plateau 7,500 ft. high. The peak itself rises about 2,350 ft. above the last narrow plain; its sides are very steep and difficult of ascent, and the summit is a narrow wall enclosing a crater about a mile in diameter with an average depth of 106 ft. The eruptions from this crater ceased long before the island was discovered by Europeans; but there have been recent eruptions from other craters, notably in 1704, '5, and '6, and 1798, the most recent. Hot vapors arise from the craters, and their surfaces are always warm.
The next highest elevations are Chahora, 9,885 ft., 2½ m. S. W., and Azulejos, 9,400 ft., 3½ m. S. of Teyde. About one seventh of the island is fit for cultivation; the most fertile districts are at the E. end, the best being the plain of Laguna, about 12 sq. m. in extent, from which large crops of grain are obtained. The principal productions are cochineal, nuts, wine, and fruit; the first named is the only one of importance in commerce. In 1873 there was exported 2,476,433 lbs. of cochineal, valued at $1,225,289 in gold. The total value of all other exports during the same year was $295,-060; of all imports, $1,988,045, including 3,390 tons of coal. The value of exports to the United States for the year ending Sept. 30, 1874, was $30,000. The commerce of the island is nearly all conducted through Santa Cruz. The only other important town is Laguna, in the plain of that name, with a fixed population of about 10,000, largely increased in the hot season. Orotava, on the N. coast, gives its name to a beautiful valley, formerly famous for its gigantic dragon tree, which was blown down by a hurricane at the beginning of 1868.