Jacques Mcolas Augustin, a French historian, born in Blois, May 10, 1795, died in Paris, May 22, 1856. He was educated at the college of Blois and the normal school in Paris, where he began his career in 1814 as a disciple and literary collaborator of Saint-Simon, whom he left in 1817 to elaborate his new historical theories according to the principles of nationalities. He wrote much for the Cen-seur europeen (1817-20), and established his reputation as the most original historian of his day by his Histoire de la conquete de l'Angle-terre par les Normands (3 vols., 1825; 10th ed., 2 vols. 8vo, 1858, and 4 vols. 12mo, 1860), English translations of which were published in 1825 and 1847, the latter by Hazlitt. These labors impaired his sight, which he lost altogether in 1826, but he continued them with the assistance of secretaries, of whom Armand Carrel was one of the first. After the accession of Louis Philippe, he spent several years with his brother Amedee at Vesoul. At Lux-euil, where he resided in summer, he married in 1831 Julie de Querangal, daughter of a rear admiral, who became of great assistance to him as an amanuensis, and who published several works of her own.
She died in 1844, and after residing for some time with the princess Belgiojoso, he spent the rest of his life with his brother's family. Guigniaut characterized him, in an essay read in 1862 before the academy of inscriptions, as a martyr, and as the first historical scholar who had vindicated the rights of oppressed nationalities. His works include Lettres sur l'histoire de France (1827; latest revised ed., 1859); Dix ans d'Petudes his-toriques (1834; 9th revised ed., 1857; English translation, "Historical Essays," 1845); Recits des temps merovingiens (1840; 8th ed., 18G4; English translation, 1846); Recueil de monuments de l'histoire du tiers etat, prepared under the direction of the government and with the assistance of several writers (vols. i. to iii., 1850 -'56); and Essai sur l'histoire de la formation et des progres du tiers etat (1853; English translation by Francis B. Wells, 2 vols. 12mo, London, 1855). Ho prepared a complete edition of his works (8 vols. 18mo, 1846-'7; new ed., 10 vols., 1856-'60).
Amedee Simon Dominique, a French historian, brother of the preceding, born in Blois, Aug. 2, 1797, died in Paris, March 26, 1873. He was educated at the college of Blois, and in 1820 received an office in the ministry of marine. In 1828 he was for a short time professor of history at Besancon. At Guizot's recommendation he was appointed in 1830 prefect of the department of Haute-Saone. At the end of 1838 he entered the council of state, of which he was also a member during the second empire, and in 1860 was made a senator. He was less brilliant but more judicious than his brother. His works include Histoire des Gaulois jusqu' a'la domination romaine (3 vols., 1828; 6th ed., 1866); Histoire de la Gaule sous l'administration romaine (3 vols., 1840-47); Histoire d'At-tila et de ses successeurs (2 vols., 1856; 3d ed., 1864); Recits et nouveaux recits de l'histoire romaine (1860-64); Tableau de l'empire ro-vnain (1862); Saint Jerome: la societe chre-tienne d Rome et l'emigration romaine en Terre Sainte (2 vols., 1867); and Saint Jean Chrysos-tome et l'imperatrice Eudoxie: la societe chre-tienne en Orient (1872). - His son, Gilbert Augustin, published in 1875 a historical drama entitled Aventures d' une dme en peine.