Friedrich Wilhelm, a German philologist, born at Kirchscheidungen, near Freiburg, June 17, 1784, died in Munich, Feb. 25, 1860. He studied in Leipsic and Gottingen, and in 1809 became professor at the gymnasium in Munich. Being looked upon as a foreigner by the Bavarians, he wrote a vigorous pamphlet entitled Ueoer die angenommenen Unter-schiede zioischen Sud- und Norddeutschland (1810). Soon after its publication an attempt was made to assassinate him. In 1811 he founded a philological institute, which in the following year was incorporated with the university of Munich, and from 1811 to 1829 he edited the Acta Philologorum Monacensium. He took a special interest in the Hellenic struggle for independence and in the amelioration of education in Greece, and published in 1833, after a two years1 sojourn in that country, L'etat actuel de la Grece, et des moyens d'arriver a sa restauration. In his work Ueber die neuesten Angriffe auf die Universitaten (1837) he expressed anew his conviction of the importance of classical studies, and in 1838 initiated a bitter literary warfare against Diesterweg, Linde, Schmitthenner, and others, by his Ueber den gegenwartigen Zustand des offentlichen Unter-richts in den westlichen Staaten von Deutschland, in Holland, Frankreich und Belgien. He wrote a Greek grammar, with special reference to the Homeric dialect, which passed through several editions, and has been trans-lated into English and other languages.
Ho published also a school edition of this work, an account of his travels in Italy (1826), an edition of Pindar (2 vols., 1850), and other school books and philological treatises. His life has been written by his son Heinrich (2 vols., Leipsic, 1866).
Heinrich Wilhelm Josias, a German theologian, son of the preceding, born in Munich, Nov. 5, 1817. He was professor at Marburg from 1843 to 1864, and subsequently resided at Heidelberg. He is the principal representative of Edward Irving's doctrines in Germany. His works include Geschichte der Kirclie im apostolisclicn Zeital-ter (2 vols., Frankfort, 1852; English translation, London, 1854), and Ueber christliches Familienleben (6th ed., 1872).