Thomas Reid, a Scottish metaphysician, born at Strachan, Kincardineshire, April 26, 1710, died in Glasgow, Oct. 7, 1796. He graduated at Marischal college, Aberdeen, in 1726, was librarian of the college till 1736, and in 1737 was presented to the neighboring living of New Machar. In 1748 he published a paper in the London "Philosophical Transactions," in which he opposed the introduction of mathematical formulas into metaphysical and moral speculations. He was elected in 1752 professor of philosophy in King's college, his department comprehending logic, ethics, mathematics, and physics. His "Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense" (London, 1763) aimed at the refutation of Hume's skeptical theory. He introduced the doctrine of an original instinct or common sense as the ground of belief. In 1764 he was transferred to the university of Glasgow as professor of moral philosophy, and retired in 1781. In 1785 he published his "Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man," consisting of his academical lectures (new edition by the Rev. James Walker, D. D., Cambridge, Mass., 1850), and in 1788 his "Essays on the Active Powers of Man." In 1863 a complete edition of his works, with preface, notes, and supplementary dissertations by Sir William Hamilton, and a memoir by Dugald Stewart, was published in Edinburgh (2 vols. 8vo).