I. Christian

Christian, a German philosopher, born in Leipsic in January, 1655, died in Halle, Sept. 23, 1728. He was educated by his father, the rector of the celebrated Thomas-schule, and from 1675 to 1679 studied at Frank-fort-on-the-Oder. Returning to Leipsic in 1679, he undertook a course of lectures at the university, and in 1687 he began to lecture in the German instead of the Latin language. From 1688 to 1690 he issued a monthly series of papers devoted chiefly to current literature. Persecution finally forced him to flee from Leipsic, and he went to Berlin, where he was kindly received by the elector Frederick III., afterward King Frederick I. of Prussia. He subsequently delivered lectures at Halle, and his success induced the elector in 1694 to found the university of Halle, of which in 1710 Thomasius became rector and dean of the faculty of jurisprudence. It was principally by his exertions that trials for witchcraft and torture were abolished in Germany. His most important works are : Historic der Weis-heit und Thorlieit (Halle, 1693), and Ver-nunftige und christliche, aber nicht schein-heitige Gedanken und Erinnerungen uber aller-Tiand auserlesene, gemisckte philosophische und jaristische Handel (3 vols., 1723-'6). His life has been written by Luden (Christian Thomasius nach seinen Schicksalen und Schriften, Berlin, 1805), and by Wagner (1872).

II. Gottfried

Gottfried, a German theologian, a descendant of the preceding, born in 1802, died in 1875. He was a Lutheran pastor and teacher in Nuremberg from 1829 to 1842, and for the rest of his life professor of dogmatics at Erlangen. He was one of the founders of the Zeitschrift far Protestantismus und Kirche. His works include, besides treatises on the Lutheran church, Origines : ein Beitrag zur Dogmengeschichte des 3. Jahrhunderts (1837); Beitrdge zur Tcirch-lichen Christologie (1845); and Christi Person und Werk (3 vols., 1856-'64).