Anthony Todd, a British physician, born in Edinburgh, Jan. 7, 1778, died at Ealing, Middlesex, July 3, 1849. He was educated at the high school of Edinburgh, studied medicine, in 1798 became a member of the speculative society, and in 1799 of the royal medical society, and in 1800 settled in London as a general practitioner. In 1826 he became a member of the royal college of physicians, in 1828 professor of materia medica in London university, now University college, and in 1832 professor of medical jurisprudence. His works include "The London Dispensatory" (8vo, 1811), and " Elements of Materia Medica" (8vo, 1832), both many times reprinted.
Katherine Byerly, an English authoress, wife of the preceding, born in Etruria, Staffordshire, in 1800, died in Dover, Dec. 17, 1862. She published " Memoirs of the Court of Henry VIII." (2 vols. 8vo, London, 1826); "Memoirs of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, and of the Court, of Queen Anne" (2 vols., 1839); "Memoirs of the Jacobites of 1715 and 1745" (3 vols., 1845); " Memoirs of the Viscountess Sundon," etc. (2 vols., 1847); " Recollections of Literary Characters and Celebrated Places " (2 vols., 1853); "Court Secrets " (3 vols., 1857); "Life and Times of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham " (3 vols., 1860); and several novels. "Queens of Society" and "Wits and Beaux of Society" were written with her son, John Cockburn Thomson, under the pseudo-nymes of Grace and Philip Wharton.
James, a British civil engineer, born in Belfast about 18.16. He was educated in Belfast and Glasgow, where his father was professor of mathematics. He took the master's degree in 1840, studied civil engineering and mechanics, became a pupil in the Horseley iron works, near Tipton, South Staffordshire, entered the service of William Fairbairn, and afterward settled in Belfast as a civil engineer. In 1857 he was appointed professor of civil engineering in Queen's college, Belfast, and in 1872 professor of engineering and mechanics in the university of Glasgow. Prof. Thomson has been prominently employed as a consulting engineer for water supply, irrigation, and other agricultural engineering. He invented the vortex turbine, and the jet pump and intermittent reservoir, for draining swamp lands. His investigations of the lowering by pressure of the freezing temperature of water suggested the perfect solution of the problem of glaciers. About 40 papers by him on physics, mathematics, and mechanics have been published in the " Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal," the "Edinburgh Philosophical Journal," the "Transactions" of the royal societies of London and Edinburgh, the "Proceedings" of the British association, and the "Transactions" of the institution of engineers of Scotland. H Sir William, a British mathematician, brother of the preceding, born in Belfast in June, 1824. He studied in Glasgow university, and afterward at Cambridge, where he graduated in 1845, and became a fellow of St. Peter's. In 1846 he was made professor of natural philosophy in Glasgow university, which post he still holds (1870). For seven years he was editor of the "Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal," among his contributions to which was one on "Distribution of Electricity on Spherical Conductors" (1848). In 1855 he delivered the Bakerian lecture on "Electro-dynamic Properties of Metals." He has constructed several beautiful instruments for the study of electrical phenomena, and is at present engaged in perfecting a tide-calculating machine.
He invented the mirror galvanometer and syphon recorder, for ocean telegraphy, which, owing to their extreme delicacy, can be worked by very low battery power. He has made important contributions to the science of magnetism, and investigated the laws of heat. (See Heat.) He was knighted in 1866. Among his published papers are " Thermal Effects of Fluids in Motion," " The Mathematical Theory of Elasticity," and "The Rigidity of the Earth." A volume of his papers on electrostatics and magnetism appeared in 1872.