I. Ludwig, A German Author

A German Author Ludwig, born in Berlin, May 31, 1773, died there, April 28, 1853. He completed his studies at Halle, and became known in 1795 as a writer of fantastic novels. His antagonism to the literary tendencies of the time was displayed in Peter Lc-brecht (2 vols., 1795-'6), and in Peter Lebrecht's Volksmarchen (3 vols., 1797), several of which, as Der gestiefelte Eater ("Puss in Boots"), Blaubart ("B1uebeard"), and Leben und Tod des keinen Rothkappchen ("Life and Death of Little Red Riding Hood"), combine the simplicity of the old legends with grotesque satire upon modern subjects. The classicists were the particular objects of his brilliant raillery, especially in his Herzensergiessungen eines kunstliebenden Klosterbruders (1797), written in conjunction with Wackenroder, and Franz Sternbald's Wanderungen (2 vols., 1798), and in his comedies Die verkehrte Welt ("The Topsy-turvy World") and Prinz Zerbino, oder die Reise nach dem guten Geschmack (" Travels after Good Taste"). The Leben und Tod der Genovera (1800) is esteemed his finest drama.

Meantime he had married at Hamburg a niece of the composer Reichardt, had become associated with the Schlegels, Novalis, and Steffens at Jena, and with Herder at Weimar, and prepared an admirable translation of "Don Quixote" (4 vols., Berlin, 1799-1801). He published at Dresden in 1802, with A. W. von Schle-gel, the Musenalmanach. After examining at Rome the manuscripts of German mediaeval literature, he returned in 1806 to Munich, and for several years he was disabled by the gout. In 1817 he visited England to complete his studies of Shakespeare and the Elizabethan age. In 1819 he settled at Dresden. In 1820 he was invited by the king of Prussia to Berlin, where, as in Dresden, he exerted great influence on the drama, and the "Antigone" of Sophocles was performed under his auspices. His works include Minnelieder aus clem schwadbischen Zeital-ter (1803); Ulrichs ton Lichtenstein Frauen-dienst (1815); the celebrated novels Dichterle-ben, Der Tod des Dichters, and the unfinished Aufruhr in den Cevennen (1826); Shakspeare's Vorschule, a translation of plays which he regarded as early works of Shakespeare, and Dramaturgische Blatter (2 vols., 1826). He also supervised his daughter Dorothea's and aunt Baudessin's continuation of Schlegel's translation of Shakespeare, and edited various poems.

The latest edition of his poems is in 3 vols. (1841), and of his novels in 12 vols. (1853). Nearly complete editions of his works include 20 vols. (1828-'42). Carlyle translated several of his tales in vol. i. of his " Specimens of German Romance;" a second edition of those tales, in another English version, appeared at London in 1860. Tieck's biographer Kopke edited his posthumous writings (2 vols., Leipsic, 1855). - See Friesen's Ludwig Tieck (2 vols., Vienna, 1871).

II. Christian Friedrich

Christian Friedrich, a German sculptor, brother of the preceding, born in Berlin, Aug. 14, 1776, died there, May 14, 1851. He studied under Schadow and in Paris under David, and was employed at Weimar from 1801 to 1805, and subsequently in Italy till 1819, when he became a member of the academy at Berlin, cooperating with Schenkel and Rauch in improving the art of sculpture. His works include many busts in the Walhalla, executed at Carrara by order of the crown prince and future king Louis of Bavaria; those of Goethe and other poets at Weimar; the statue of Necker for Mine, de Stael; decorations of the royal theatre at Berlin and other public buildings; and the statue of his brother at Dresden.