Tlaxcala, Or Tiascala (Aztec, " land of bread"), a state and city of the republic of Mexico. The state is bounded W. by the state of Mexico, and on all other sides by that of Puebla; area, 1,498 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 121,-665. In area it is the smallest of the Mexican states, not including the federal district. It received its name from its great fertility in maize. The city, capital of the state, is between two mountains on an upper branch of the river Mescala, 20 m. N. of the city of Puebla, and 70 m. E. by S. of Mexico; pop. about 5,000. It has a cathedral, state house, bishop's palace, and the oldest Franciscan convent in Mexico. - The Techichimecs founded the Tlax-calan republic, which successfully resisted all efforts of surrounding tribes and even of the Mexican monarchy for its subjugation. In 1519 the Tlaxcalans resisted the march of Cortes, but, after being defeated in four battles, they submitted as vassals to Spain, but refused to abjure their religion. (See Oortes.) The city is said to have numbered at the time of the invasion about 20,000 families, and Sept. 18, the day of Cortes's entrance, is still celebrated there.