Tobacco, the plant and the dried and prepared leaves of Nicotiana tabacwn and other species of Nicotiana, a genus of the Solanaceae or nightshade family. (See Solanum.) The ( name of the genus commemorates that of Jean Nicot, a French ambassador to Portugal, who in 1560 sent the seeds from Lisbon to France, as those of a highly valuable medicinal plant which was then known throughout Portugal, having been introduced in 1520. The botani-cal specific name, and the common name, come from tobago or tabaco, the native term in Santo Domingo for the tube or pipe through which the smoke of the burning leaves was inhaled. The native Brazilian name for the plant was petum (now used as a generic name for the related petunia),.which the Portuguese introduced into Europe, and it is occasionally met with in old works. The genus Nicotiana is mostly American, containing about 50 species, mainly herbs, with leaves, stems, etc, covered with viscid hairs; calyx tubular-bell-shaped and five-lobed; corolla funnel-shaped, with a five-lobed limb; stamens five, inserted on and included by the corolla; ovary two-celled, ripening into a two-celled capsule, surrounded by the persistent calyx, and opening by two or several valves for the escape of the numerous, very small, kidney-shaped, roughened seeds.
The species most generally cultivated is N. tabacum, a stately plant, 3 to 6 ft. high, with ample, oblong-lance-shaped leaves, which are mostly decurrent upon the stem, and decrease in size toward the summit of the plant; the flowers are in a large terminal panicle, the rose-purple corolla about 2 in. long., with a somewhat inflated throat and short lobes. This species was extensively cultivated by the natives before America was visited by Europeans, and has not been detected in a truly wild state. N. rustica, according to Humboldt, was largely cultivated by the ancient Mexicans, as it was by the more northern aborigines; it is occasionally found as a weed as far north as New York state, and occurs in various other parts of the country as a relic of its cultivation by the Indians; though a native of tropical America, it is more hardy than the common species; it was early introduced into cultivation in Europe, and has become naturalized in the southern parts of that continent. It has ovate, petioled leaves, and dull greenish yellow flowers, which are much smaller than those of N. tabacum.
As its leaves in drying retain much of their color, it is sometimes called green tobacco, and being earlier and more hardy, it is better suited to northern localities than the common species; it comes to maturity in Canada, and is cultivated in northern Germany, Sweden, and Russia, and various eastern countries; the Turkish, Hungarian, and Latakia tobaccos are of this species. Chinese tobacco is accredited to N. Chinensis, and that of Shiraz to N. Persica, species of doubtful origin and identity. N. repanda is said to be raised in Cuba for the manufacture of a particular brand of cigars. The tobacco formerly cultivated by the Indians of Missouri and further west was, according to Nuttall, N. quadrivalvis, a low, much branched plant, with short, lanceolate, sessile leaves, and nearly white flowers, opening only at sunset; its native country is unknown. - Tobacco is largely produced in China, Japan, Persia, and other parts of the East, in some of which the plant has become so thoroughly naturalized that an eastern origin has been sometimes claimed for it; but Alphonse de Candolle, after a thorough study of the subject, finds no satisfactory evidence that its uses and culture were any where known before the discovery of America. - In speaking of the cultivation and uses of tobacco, the common species, N. tabacum, is intended, unless otherwise mentioned.
Like some other plants of the family, as the potato and tomato, tobacco readily adapts itself to new conditions, and it becomes to a certain extent acclimated. The influences of climate and soil upon the development of plants are strikingly illustrated in tobacco as cultivated in the United States; it is grown from near the borders of Canada to the gulf of Mexico, and almost from ocean to ocean, and several states produce a leaf of such well marked characteristics that a good judge can at once tell the locality of its growth. The valley of the Connecticut produces a leaf which is large, thin, and remarkably fine and silky, and which, though deficient in flavor, is so superior for wrappers, or the outer covering of cigars, that it is even sent to Cuba for that use. In the attempts to improve the flavor of the tobacco of the Connecticut valley, seeds from Cuba and other localities have been tried there; but it is found that in a very few seasons the tobacco, from whatever source the seeds are obtained, becomes similar to that which has long been raised there; it has also been found that when Connecticut valley seeds are sown in other localities the plants in two or three generations give a product almost precisely like that peculiar to the locality. - The first European cultivation of tobacco took place in Portugal, in the early part of the 10th century; it was raised in Franco in 1572, a box full of powdered leaves having been sent to Catharine de' Medici, who acquired a taste for it, and the plant was for a time called herbe de la reine.
The culture rapidly extended to other parts of Europe and to Asia, in some cases being checked by severe laws or made useful as a source of revenue. Its production in England, by a law of 1660, was restricted to a very small quantity for medicinal purposes, and the prohibition still remains in force. The earliest settlers in Virginia engaged in the cultivation of tobacco, as it was a salable commodity in England; but as early as 1616, when the colony only numbered 351 persons, a provision was made by law against neglect of food crops in its favor. - In the cultivation of tobacco the first step is to sow the seeds in a seed bed; the success of the crop greatly depends upon the management of this. A spot with a warm exposure and well sheltered is selected, a temporary fence being sometimes put up to protect it from the winds, and as soon as the soil is thawed the bed is highly manured and spaded or ploughed. It is very common to put upon the bed a covering of brush, burn it, and rake the ashes into the soil; this burning destroys all the seeds of weeds near the surface, and leaves the soil in good condition.
The seeds of tobacco are so exceedingly minute that it is said an ordinary thimbleful, if each germinated, would produce more than enough plants for an acre; but, as is usually the case with very small seeds, a large proportion of them will be covered too deeply and fail. The surface of the bed being raked fine, the seed is carefully mixed with several quarts of lime, ashes, sand, or other material to aid in its distribution, and sown with the greatest care broadcast, and the surface well rolled. After sowing, the bed receives the closest attention; watering when needed, applying liquid manure, covering with mats or straw on cool nights, and when the plants are well up killing destructive insects and weeding, are among the labors needed to insure success. "When the plants are about 4 in. high they are ready to be transplanted; the field is previously prepared, and can hardly be made too rich; stable manure and a great number of artificial fertilizers are applied to this most exhausting crop; the land is marked out in rows 3 ft. apart one way and 2 ft. the other for small varieties, which will give 7,000 plants to the acre, while for larger kinds the rows are 3 ft. one way and 4 ft. the other, allowing 4,200 plants to the acre.
Transplanting is done in cloudy weather, the plants being set at the intersection of the rows; they soon become established, and during their growth receive the most thorough cultivation. When the leaves are as large as one's hand, the tobacco needs " worming." Various insects attack it, but the most destructive is the large "green worm," the larva of a sphinx; the common tobacco worm in western states is sphinx Carolina, but S. quinque-maculata, commonly found on the potato and tomato, feeds upon tobacco in the eastern states; both are large, night-flying moths, with five inches spread of wing and a long coiled proboscis; in their larval state they eat voraciously and grow rapidly, forming when full grown a caterpillar 3 in. long, as large as one's finger, and having an ornamental horn (not a sting) at its tail end. These will ruin the leaves in a short time; the whole farm force is frequently needed to "worm " the tobacco, and it must be guarded from these attacks during its whole growth; the worms are killed by pinching them between the thumb and finger. When the plants and the worms are small, a flock of young turkeys may be employed, but later in the season there is no substitute for hand picking.
Some have killed the parent insects by placing sirup poisoned with arsenic in the large tubular flowers of the common thornap-ple or Jamestown weed (datura stramonium) and placing these about the field. " Priming " is the name given to the breaking off of such leaves as touch the ground and become broken and soiled; this is not practised by all planters, some preferring to cure all the leaves and put the poor ones by themselves. " Topping " is the stopping of the upward growth of the plant by breaking off the upper end of the stem, in order that the nourishment which would otherwise go to the production of flowers and seed may be diverted to the greater development of the lower leaves; some top when the first blossom buds show, and others leave a given number of leaves, 10 to 16, as experience has proved most profitable. The upward growth of the plant being checked by topping, branches soon appear in the axils of the leaves; these are called suckers, and the operation of removing them is "suckering," which is done as soon as those on the upper part of the plant are large enough to get hold of, and the laborious work must be kept up as long as any suckers appear. The maturity of the crop is judged of by the color and the feel of the leaf; over-ripeness is more injurious than its opposite.
Cutting is sometimes done as soon as the dew is off in the morning, and the tobacco housed as soon as wilted; others cut in the afternoon, and house the next morning. A hatchet or a knife like a corn knife is used, the stalk being severed close to the ground with one blow, and laid down, where it remains long enough to wilt so that it may be handled without breaking the leaves, hut not so long as to be sun-burned. Where it is an important crop, large buildings (tobacco houses) are erected expressly for it; these are so arranged that the ventilation is under perfect control; there are several ventilators in the roof, and each alternate board of the upright siding is hung on hinges, and so arranged that all may be opened or closed at once; the best houses are provided with a stove. The methods of hanging tobacco to dry vary greatly; the old way is to hang the plants upon poles, which are supported at each end by timbers arranged for the purpose; the plants are tied to the poles with a strong twine; they hang tops downward, and are placed upon alternate sides of the pole and such distances apart that the leaves will not touch.
A very common way of hanging is on laths; these are 4 ft. long, l| in. wide, and 5/8 in. thick; an iron spear about 8 in. long, with a socket to fit upon the lath, is placed upon one end, and by its means the tobacco is strung upon the lath, the spear passing through the stalk near its larger end; this work is done in the field, and the laths with their load are hung upon rails in the barn. Besides these methods of hanging there are several patented contrivances intended to facilitate the work and at the same time keep the plants far enough apart. During the drying close attention must be paid to ventilation; as the leaves dry they must not be broken by the wind; if hung too close, the tobacco will "pole barn;" if it does not dry quickly enough, the green leaves may freeze and be spoiled; fire heat is often used, which improves the color, but is objected to by some as injuring the flavor; it ordinarily takes about 12 weeks to cure. When quite cured, the tobacco is stripped; the house is opened in a damp time, and when the leaves have absorbed so much moisture from the air that they will not break, the tobacco is taken from the poles and put in piles, where it will remain pliant for a week. In stripping, the leaves are at the same time assorted, four qualities being usually made.
The first stripper takes a stalk and picks off all the defective leaves near the base, and throws it to the next; the second stripper removes all of the next quality, and so on; the leaves are kept even and smooth, and when the stripper gets enough for a " hand," which is 3 or i oz., he binds them together into a bunch by means of another leaf. Up to this stage the tobacco is simply the dried leaves, without the aroma and other qualities for which it is esteemed; these are developed only after it has undergone a fermentation or is "conditioned," to effect which the leaves are " bulked." The merchants who purchase the tobacco frequently prefer to " condition " it in their own warehouses; when this is the case, the hands are simply baled for transportation. " Bulking " consists in stacking the tobacco in a compact heap, the buts of the hands laid outward, the leaves being carefully smoothed as they are placed down; in a rude way the bulk is made on a platform of boards raised above the ground sufficiently to allow of a circulation of air beneath; when the pile is 3 or 4 ft. high, planks and weights are placed upon it, and it is covered if need be with blankets.
In this state it remains until the color, flavor, and other qualities are properly developed, which requires from four to six weeks. Bulking being the finishing process, the quality of the crop depends upon its proper management, and it requires frequent attention. Tobacco is sent to market in boxes containing about 400 lbs., or in casks holding 1,300 to 1,500 lbs.; in packing in casks the buts of the hands are laid toward the outside and trodden down by the bare feet of the packer; when about 100 lbs. are thus packed, pressure by means of a screw or a powerful lever is applied, after which more tobacco is placed in, pressed again, and so on till the cask is full. - The yield of marketable tobacco to the acre depends upon numerous contingencies; but the average is not far from 600 lbs., while some growers harvest 1,000 lbs. annually, and this is exceeded in particular cases. Tobacco growers are very careful in the matter of seed; the tendency of the plant to vary has already been noticed, and it is the custom of some growers, to save a large supply of seed from a desirable crop, as when well kept it remains good for six to ten years. - The various kinds of foreign tobacco are known by the names of the countries producing them, or the ports whence they are shipped, such as Havana, Orinoco, Turkey, Latakia, Shiraz, etc.; that grown in this country bears the name of the state or some particular locality, while the product of the Connecticut valley and some other localities bears the unmeaning name of "seed leaf." Virginia tobacco is one .of the strongest kinds, not fitted for cigars, but is made into various shapes for pipes, and for chewing, and used for snuff; Maryland is paler and weaker, and used for pipes; Kentucky is intermediate between the two, and in this as with the Missouri there is much variety; the Florida is now becoming known as a fine tobacco, and used for cigars; the best of the northern kinds for making cigar wrappers is the Connecticut, and those from New York, Ohio, and other northern states are valued in proportion as they approach this in texture, as for this use strength or flavor is not required; the body of the cigar being made ot Havana, a leaf that has an attractive color and silky feel is sought for. (See Cigae.) The Turkish and other kinds from the East are only used cut fine for pipes, or granulated for cigarettes.
Manila tobacco is imported only in the form of peculiar conical cigars called cheroots. Very fine tobacco is produced in Paraguay, and small quantities have been imported. - In whatever manner the tobacco may be manufactured (except for snuff), the first step is to "strip" it. -The hands, being moistened to prevent breaking, are untied, and the strong midrib of the leaf is removed; this work is done by women and children; the upper surfaces of the leaf are folded together lengthwise, and the midrib dexterously separated by a pull; the " stems," as the midribs are called, are used in the poorer kinds of cut tobacco and snuff, but are nearly a waste product, being sold at low rates for making sheep dip to destroy ticks on those animals, and for fumigating greenhouses to destroy insects. Some tobacco is sold which seems to be of the leaf merely stripped, made into a roll, and subjected to moderate pressure, without any foreign substance, and some of the cut tobacco is of this kind; but the greater part of that made up into cakes, heads, plugs, or pigs, as the parcels are variously called, as well as that which is cut for both smoking and chewing, is prepared by various processes to meet the taste of the consumers; molasses, liquorice paste, a decoction of figs, and glycerine are used to impart a sweet taste, give color, and prevent rapid drying; common salt and other salts are used for flavoring, and nitrate of potash or soda is sometimes added to increase the combustibility; anise and other aro-matics are added for their flavor, and smoking tobaccos have their odor increased, if not improved, by the use of cascarilla bark, and lately liatris odoratissima, the leaves of which are largely collected in Florida and sold as " wild vanilla" or deer's-tongue (see Vanilla); these contain a great deal of coumarine, the aromatic principle of the Tonqua bean, a seed employed for scenting snuff.
These additions, except those for odor, are made in the form of a liquid technically termed " liquor" or " sauce," in which the leaves are steeped. - To make cut tobacco, the leaves are made up into large cakes, which are cut into shreds or filaments by the action of machines similar in principle to straw-cutters. In this condition the tobacco is put up in a great variety of packages, which are marked with fanciful names. The dark-colored leaves, made still darker by the liquoring process, produce the coarse variety called shag, and the better sorts are converted by spinning processes into cords variously folded or twisted, and distinguished by different names. The term "negro head" is applied to coarse rolls of tobacco weighing 6 or 8 lbs. each. The variety known as " pig-tail" is also spun; the cord, but little larger than a pipe stem, is often braided, and then oiled and packed closely in kegs. In the United States a great deal of tobacco, intended chiefly for home consumption, after being cut up, is made into flat cakes, which are moistened with molasses and powerfully compressed; these cakes are about 5 in. long and 1½ in. wide, and when closely packed in the strong oak boxes in which they are sent to market, they form a compact mass, from which the cakes are torn out only by the application of considerable force; this, known as plug or Cavendish tobacco, is in common use for chewing, and is smoked in pipes by those who are fond of tobacco of the strongest flavor. - Snuffs vary greatly in quality, the poorer kinds being made from the " stems," or midribs of the leaves, separated in preparing tobacco for other purposes; in the finer kinds these are rejected, the blade or better portion of the leaf only being used; and in intermediate qualities both parts are ground up together, and the refuse or dust from the cutting machines is used.
There are two principal classes of snuffs, the dry and the moist. The dry snuffs are prepared from tobacco which has been exposed to a high temperature before grinding, and they differ in quality according to the proportion of stem they contain; they are usually very finely powdered, of a light yellowish brown color, and from their excessive dryness are very diffusible in the air, and need careful handling; lime is said to be sometimes mixed with these snuffs, to increase their dryness, and those so treated have an injurious effect upon the membranes of the nose. The Scotch or yellow snuff is the commonest of this class; this is usually packed in bladders; yellow ochre is often added to improve the color and as a cheap adulteration to increase the weight. The names of some of the brands indicate the method of preparation, such as "high-dried" and "high toast." The Irish and Welsh snuffs belong in this class; one of the most celebrated Irish brands is Lundy Foot, taking its name from the original makers, Lundy, Foot and co. The moist snuffs present a greater number of varieties. They are prepared by grinding the tobacco while moist, and are subjected to various manipulations.
The finely divided tobacco is moistened, usually with a solution of salt, and placed in a heap to ferment; the extent to which this fermentation is carried, the fineness of the subsequent grinding, the addition of perfumes, and the admixture of other substances to increase the pungency or to maintain its moist condition, all vary in producing the different commercial varieties. Carbonate of potash, in the form of pearlash, readily attracts moisture from the atmosphere, and is sometimes added to keep the snuff damp. Salt is added to all moist snuffs, and is not regarded as an adulteration, as it is considered necessary to prevent mould. Various essential oils are used to perfume particular brands, the most common being those of bergamot and rose; powdered orris root and rosewood are both used for this purpose. The color of the snuff is due to the extent to which it is fermented. The leading brands of moist snuffs are rappees (Fr. raper, to rasp) of various kinds (coarser-grained than other varieties), prince's mixture, maccoboy (Fr. macouba), Dutch carrottee, Grand Cairo, etc.
Snuff is much more largely consumed in Great Britain and France than in the United States. In Scotland the rappee snuff is generally preferred, the so-called Scotch snuff being used chiefly by women of the lower classes. - The first analysis of tobacco was made by Vau-quelin in 1809, who detected a volatile acrid principle, which was not isolated till 1828, by Posselt and Reimann, as a colorless oily liquid, which was called nicotine or nicotia, and is the constituent upon which the active properties of the plant chiefly depend. (See Nicotia.) The proportion of this alkaloid in the dried leaves varies from less than 2 per cent, in Havana to nearly 8 per cent, in tobacco produced in the department of Lot in France. The occurrence of nicotia in tobacco smoke is asserted by some chemists, while others have failed to detect it. Another constituent is tobacco camphor, or nicotianine, a concrete volatile oil which appears on the surface of the distillate as minute crystals when the leaves are distilled with water; very discrepant accounts are given of its sensible properties, which have not been sufficiently studied. Besides these the leaves contain a bitter extractive matter, gum, malate of lime, chloroplryl, albuminoids, malic acid, woody fibre, and various salts.
The amount of ash is very large, varying from 16 to 27 per cent. Wolff found in 1,000 parts of air-dried leaves 197.5 of ash, composed as follows: potash, 54.1; soda, 7.3; magnesia, 20.7; lime, 73.1; phosphoric acid, 7.1; sulphuric acid, 7.7; silica, 19.0; chlorine, 8.8. The leaves contain from 2½ to 4½ per cent, of nitrogen, partly in the form of nitrates; this, with the large content of potash and phosphoric acid, shows the heavy draft made by the crop upon the fertility of the soil, which can only be maintained by the most liberal manuring. By dry or destructive distillation at a red heat, an empyreumatic oil is obtained, of about the color and consistence of molasses, with acrid taste, and precisely the odor of an old pipe; this is powerfully poisonous; under the name of oil of tobacco it is used in ointments for skin diseases. This oil has been detected in tobacco smoke together with nicotianine (as some assert), nicotia, salts of ammonia, hydrocyanic acid, sulphuretted hydrogen, several volatile fatty acids, phenol, creosote, and numerous basic substances of the picolinic series.
It appears therefore that the physiological effects of smoking cannot be directly deduced from, although closely allied to, those of tobacco administered by the mouth or otherwise. - The admixture of some of the materials used in the processes of manufacturing tobacco cannot be properly called adulterations, as they are added to suit the tastes of consumers. Water, necessary to bring the leaf into proper form, may be sometimes fraudulently used to increase the weight, and those who keep.the unmanufactured tobacco in store are careful that it shall not lose in this respect; the other additions, of various saccharine and saline matters, have already been mentioned. In England, where tobacco bears a high price, there is a temptation to add other materials, and, especially in cut tobaccos, various vegetable substances have been detected; dock, rhubarb, coltsfoot, and other leaves, malt sprouts, and peat are among the most important; but the use of these is not frequent, as detection in the adulteration of tobacco, and even their possession by a tobacconist, are punished by a fine of £200. The microscope serves for the detection of these adulterations, the structure of the true leaf being quite distinct from that of any likely to be mixed with it.
The various salts, such as nitrates to increase the combustibility, and others ' to modify the flavor or to increase the weight, are detected by chemical tests. Snuff is more liable to adulteration than any other form of tobacco; common salt is a very frequent addition; ochres and other earthy matters, pearlash to absorb moisture, oxide of lead, and various other foreign substances, including powdered glass (supposed to be accidental), have been detected. - The medicinal effects of tobacco upon the system are very marked, whether it is taken internally or applied externally. In small quantities, taken by either of the methods in which it is commonly used, as smoking, chewing, or snuffing the pulverized dry leaf, it acts as a sedative narcotic; in larger quantities, or with those unaccustomed to it, it causes giddiness, faintness, nausea, vomiting, and purging, with great debility; as the nausea continues with severe retching, the skin becomes cold and clammy, the muscles relaxed, the pulse feeble, and fainting and sometimes convulsions ensue, terminating in death.
Its power of causing relaxation of the muscular system is great, and has been taken advantage of in surgical treatment, as by Dr. Physiek in a case of obstinate and long continued dislocation of the jaw, the desired effect being produced by smoking, to which the patient was unaccustomed. An infusion or the smoke of tobacco has been introduced into the rectum to facilitate the reduction of a hernia or intestinal obstruction; but it is now entirely superseded for these purposes by the more effectual and less dangerous ether or chloroform. Its physiological action is nearly opposed to that of strychnia, to which it has been used as an antidote. It is also applied in the form of infusions and cataplasms to relieve various spasmodic affections, and its use generally in medicine is in external applications, the nausea it occasions almost wholly preventing its exhibition internally. It is recommended in articular gout, rheumatism, and neuralgia; and the toothache is often relieved by smoking a cigar. The application of the infusion, or even of the leaves, or of powdered tobacco, to surfaces deprived of the cuticle, has sometimes been attended with fatal effects; these have even followed the inhalation of the smoke.
The powerfully nauseating effects of tobacco suggest its use as an emetic, but it is rarely resorted to for this purpose. Entirely different opinions have been entertained by the most respectable medical authorities as to the effects of tobacco upon the system, whether beneficial or hurtful, as it is commonly used; and ever since its early introduction many have earnestly condemned it for its supposed universally injurious qualities. Its use nevertheless has been constantly increasing, and multitudes among all nations depend upon it daily, suffering extremely if deprived of it for a time. Attempts have been made to show that the use of tobacco lessens mental vigor, but it would be very easy to produce abundant instances to prove that its action in this direction can be but slight. Its use, however, is specially to be avoided by persons who have not reached their full bodily development. Medical authorities are able to trace pretty clearly to its extreme use certain forms of pharyngitis, dyspepsia, palpitation of the heart, and so-called nervousness.
A form of blindness known as tobacco amaurosis is recognized by oculists; this is sometimes, but not usually, attended by actual atrophy of the optic nerve, and is generally very amenable to treatment. - In Spain and Spanish American countries women smoke as well as men, while in England and North America the use of tobacco by women, except in the form of snuff, is very rare, and the use of snuff by women is becoming less frequent. The use of snuff for "dipping" appears to be peculiar to the southern states; it avoids the unpleasant effects of snuffing, and has been largely practised in secret as well as openly; it is done with a small brush, which is first wetted, then dipped in snuff, and applied to the gums; it is thought to brighten the eyes and improve the complexion of the young, but the older soon abandon it for the pipe. - The general estimate of the crop of leaf tobacco in 1875' is: Virginia, 65,000 hhds.; Maryland, 35,000; Ohio, 15,000; Kentucky and Tennessee, 100,-000; Illinois and Indiana, 30,000; Missouri, 30,000; total, 275,000 hhds.
In January, 1876, the average values of leaf tobacco per hhd. were : Kentucky, $150; Virginia, $120; Maryland, $60; Ohio, $60; at which rates the total value of the estimated crop of 1875 would be $29,400,000. The annual consumption in the United States is estimated at 60,000 to 75,000 hhds. Of seed-leaf tobacco the stock on hand on Jan. 1, 1875, was 180,000 cases; exported during the year, 35,000; consumption, 70,000; packed in hogsheads and for cutting purposes, 10,000; total, 115,000; leaving stock on hand Jan. 1, 1876, 65,000 cases, to which must be added the estimated crop of 1875, as follows :
Tobacco Plant in Flower (Nicotiana tabacum).
Hand of Tobacco.
Connecticut and Massachusetts..
Wisconsin and other W. states ..
The receipts and shipments of American leaf tobacco at the principal tobacco ports in the United States in 1875 were as follows :
New Orleans ............................
The exports of all kinds of tobacco from the port of New York in 1875 were : leaf in hhds., 54,831; cases, 30,668; bales, 45,122; ceroons, 13,515; stems in hhds., mostly to Germany, 2,253; manufactured tobacco, 6,554,936 lbs. The greater part was distributed as follows:
Manufactured tobacco was exported as follows: to Great Britain, 2,866,560 lbs.; Germany, 86,713 lbs.; West Indies, 754,365 lbs.; South America, 1,109,155 lbs.; Australia, 1,246,262 lbs.; and in less quantities to Belgium, Holland, Portugal, the Mediterranean, Africa, the British North American provinces, China, and India. The receipts of Cuban tobacco in the United States in 1875 were 82,819 bales. - See Joubert, Nouveau manuel du fdbricant de ta-bac (Paris, 1844); Hassall, "Adulterations detected in Food and Medicine" (London, 1857; new and enlarged ed., 1876); II. P. Prescott, "Tobacco and its Adulterations" (London, 1858); " The Uses and Abuses of Tobacco," by John Lizars, professor of surgery (Edinburgh; reprinted, Philadelphia, 1859); Fair-holt, "Tobacco, its History and Associations " (London, 1859; new ed., 1875); "Tobacco Culture, by Fourteen Experienced Cultivators" (New York, 1863); and "Tobacco," by John Dunning, in the " British Manufacturing Industries " (1876).