Tokio (formerly Yedo), a city and the capital of Japan, in the E. part of the main island, at the head of the bay of Yedo, on the Sumidagawa, in lat. 35° 40' N., Ion. 139° 40' E.; pop. in 1872, 779,361, including a garrison of 7,140 and 400 foreigners. The city is a combination of compactly built and densely inhabited districts, with intervening gardens and groves devoted to civil and religious uses, the whole covering nearly 60 sq. m., the area of the built up portion being about 28 sq. m., while one eighth of the whole is occupied by moats and canals. The centre of the city is the citadel, surrounded by stone walls and a moat, outside of which a second wall encloses about 3 sq. m. A third system of walls and moats encloses about 5 sq. m., formerly occupied by the residences of the daimios, but now covered with government buildings, colleges, schools, arsenals, barracks, founderies, steam mills, and factories. Outside, in the business and more densely populated portion, are miles of brick and stone buildings in the European style of architecture, and the shops are tilled with foreign wares. The streets are wide, regular, and clean. The city is abundantly supplied with water brought in wooden aqueducts from the Tonegawa, 9 m. distant, and a part of it is lighted with gas.
For police purposes it is divided into G principal and 96 smaller districts, with stations connected by telegraph and a uniformed force of 3,500 men. At the N. and S. ends of the city are the cemeteries, tilled with tombs and temples. There are 741 Shinto shrines, 2,179 Buddhist temples, and 4 Christian churches. The imperial university has in its different faculties nearly 100 foreign instructors. The language, normal, and elementary schools are attended by more than 6O,000 pupils. There are several banks, and more than a dozen daily newspapers printed with metal type on improved presses, and native capital has established cotton, woollen, and paper mills driven by steam, while sewing, knitting, and other manual machines are very common. Hundreds of horse vehicles and over 20,000 jin-siki-sha (man-power carriages) make the streets lively. Places of amusement abound; actors, wrestlers, story tellers, and female minstrels are numerous. . Foreign dress and manner of living have been largely adopted, and the place presents most of the characteristics of a modern European or American city. It is, connected by telegraph with Nagasaki, Hakodadi, and other cities. There is a railway to Yokohama, 18 m. distant, and a line has been surveyed to Kioto, 235 m.
The shallow bay permits only junks and small steamboats to reach the city, and the foreign trade is limited. - Yedo was laid out in 1591, when the walls of the present stronghold were built, and it soon became the military centre of the empire. In 1G5G and 1854 earthquakes occasioned an immense loss of life and property; and there have been many very destructive conflagrations, owing to the former combustible style of building and inefficient police. In 18G1 the British and French legations were established here, but were soon driven away, and were not reestablished till 1865. It 1862 it ceased to be the compulsory residence of the daimios. In 1868 it became the residence of the mikado, and the name was changed to Tokio (" eastern capital"). On Jan. 1, 1869, the port was formally opened to foreign trade and residence. In the summer of 1871 the entire power of the empire was centred hero.