A Central Province Of Spain, in New Castile, bordering on Avila, Madrid, Cu-enca, Ciudad Real, and Caceres; area, 5,586 sq. m.; pop. in .1870, 342;-272. The surface is generally mountainous, and there are elevated plains near the centre. The Tagus flows W. through the middle of the province. The Jigue-la and its affluents flow toward the Guadiana. Gold, silver, lead, iron, copper, quicksilver, tin, cinnabar, alum, bismuth, coal, graphite, and ochre are found. The soil is generally poor, but in the centre and toward the south the quality improves. Grain, flax, fruit, vegetables, wine, oil, and silk are produced. But very few sheep, cattle, or horses are reared.
A City (Anc. Toletum), capital of the province, on the Tagus, 42 m. S. S. W. of Madrid; pop. about 18,-000. It stands on a rocky height, around which the river in horseshoe shape flows in a deep and narrow channel, crossed by two stone bridges 100 ft. in height, one of which, built by the Moors, consists of a single arch. The town is encircled by two walls, originally Roman, but repaired and extended by Goths, Moors, and Spaniards, and entered by nine gates. The streets are steep, crooked, and narrow. The houses are generally in the Moorish style, from two to four stories high, with the apartments arranged round a court. The cathedral, in pure Gothic and with a lofty spire, founded in 1258 and completed in 1492, is one of the finest in Spain. The palace of the archbishop (who is the primate of Spain) formerly contained a rich collection of books and manuscripts, now added to the provincial library, which has 70,000 volumes. The foundling hospital of Santa Cruz, a fine piece of architecture, was founded by Cardinal Mendoza in 1494. The dilapidated walls of the ancient Alcazar are still standing. The university was suppressed in 1845; a seminary for theological students has been founded to supply its place; and there is a military school, a female college, school of fine arts, and other public schools.
The principal manufactures are woollen and silk goods, oil, leather, and the celebrated Toledo blades, made in the royal sword manufactory two miles from the town. There is also a royal foundery outside the walls. - According to an ancient but improbable tradition, Toledo was founded by Jewish colonists in the 6th century B. C. It was taken by the Romans in 192 B. C, and by the Goths in A. D. 467, who made it the capital of their kingdom a century later. It was captured by the Moors in 714, and wrested from them by Alfonso VI. of Castile and Leon after a terrible siege in 1085, when it became the capital of Castile, and at one time had a population of 200,000. It afterward suffered many sieges, and the removal of the court to Madrid in 1560 led to its decline. It was occupied by the French from 1808 to 1813.
The Alcazar of Toledo.
Toledo, a city and the capital of Lucas co., Ohio, port of entry of the district of Miami, on the Maumee river, 5 m. from its mouth in Maumee bay and 8 m. from the W. extremity of Lake Erie, 92 m. W. of Cleveland, and 53 m. S. S. W. of Detroit, Mich.; pop. in 1850, 3,829; in 1860, 13,768; in 1870, 31,584, of whom 11,099 were foreigners, including 5,341 Germans and 3,031 Irish; in 1875, estimated at 50,000. It comprises an area of 21.5 sq. m., of which 9.63 sq. m. were annexed in 1874; 6.2 sq. m. are on the E. side of the river and 15.3 sq. m. on the W. side. It has a fine harbor, and is well laid out, having wide streets that give an easy ascent from the harbor to the table land on which most of the houses are built. It has large and handsome public buildings, several small parks, street railroads, and water works recently erected. The number of miles of improved streets at the beginning of 1875 was 35.06; of sewers, 26.945; of water pipe, 41.62. Toledo communicates by the Miami and Erie canal with Cincinnati and Evansville, Ind., and has extensive railroad connections.
The lines centring here are the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, Toledo, Wabash, and Western, Dayton and Michigan, Detroit and Toledo, Flint and Pere Marquette, Canada Southern, Columbus and Toledo, Toledo and Maumee, Toledo and Sylvania, and Toledo, Tiffin, and Eastern. All these railroads concentrate at an immense union depot. The chief items of receipt and shipment are grain and flour. There are 10 grain elevators, with a storage capacity of 4,017,000 bushels, and capacity to receive and ship 780,000 bushels daily. The aggregate deliveries of grain, including flour, for 14 years have been as follows:
The receipts in 1874 were 730,768 barrels of flour, 10,107,382 bushels of wheat, 17,031,996 of Indian corn, 6,460,247 of oats, 14,105 of rye, and 190,224 of barley. The shipments were 879,268 barrels of flour, 8,342,069 bushels of wheat, 16,801,345 of Indian corn, 6,381,-372 of oats, 13,896 of rye, and 24,030 of barley. Other important items of receipt are provisions, live stock, whiskey, iron, tobacco, hides, cotton, wool, and lumber. In 1874 there were manufactured in the city 237,000 barrels of flour, 10,000,000 laths, and 30,000,000 ft. of lumber. The value of imports from Canada during the year ending June 30, 1874, was $79,018; of exports to Canada, $1,836,825; number of entrances, 302 of 69,517 tons; clearances, 286 of 71,389 tons; entrances in the coastwise trade, 1,962 of 441,593 tons; clearances, 1,918 of 425,951 tons; number of vessels belonging in the district, 170, with an aggregate tonnage of 13,946. The manufactories of Toledo include 5 flouring mills, 5 lumber mills, 6 iron founderies, a blast furnace, 5 breweries, 7 brick yards, 14 planing mills, 4 ship yards, 5 tanning and currying establishments, 2 manufactories of cars, 1 of car wheels, several of carriages and wagons, 2 of chairs, 1 of edge tools, 2 of files, 4 of lime, 1 of mowers and reapers, 3 of potash, 1 of refrigerators, 2 of coffee and spice mills, 3 of staves, 1 of stoves, 3 of tobacco, 2 of wire goods, 1 of wooden ware, and 2 of boots and shoes.
There are six banks, with an aggregate capital of $1,900,000 ; three savings banks and several savings and loan associations, three fire and marine insurance companies, and one life insurance company. - The city is divided into eight wards, and is governed by a mayor, eight aldermen, and 16 councilmen. The principal charitable institutions are the city hospital, house of refuge and correction, home for friendless women, and three orphan asylums. There are 20 ward school houses and a high school building, with 122 teachers and about 7,500 pupils enrolled in 1874-5, and 10 denominational and private schools. The public library contains 8,000 volumes. Three daily (one German), two tri-weekly, one semi-weekly, and six weekly (one German) newspapers, and six monthly periodicals are published. There are 45 churches, viz.: 3 Baptist, 1 Christian, 3 Congregational, 4 Episcopal, 2 Evangelical Association (German), 2 Evangelical Lutheran (German), 1 Evangelical Reformed (German), 2 Jewish, 3 Lutheran (German), 8 Methodist (2 German), 4 Presbyterian (1 German), 8 Roman Catholic (2 French and 2 German), 1 seamen's bethel, 1 Swedenborgian, 1 Unitarian, and 1 United Brethren. - Toledo was settled in 1832, and incorporated in 1836.