Tommaso Campanella, an Italian philosopher, born at Stilo in Calabria, Sept. 5, 1568, died in Paris, March 21, 1639. When very young he displayed unusual aptitude for learning, especially languages. His father wished him to become a lawyer, but he joined the Dominicans and studied theology. When but 17 years of age, studying at Cosenza, his professor was engaged to take part in a discussion upon philosophy; but being unwell, he sent Campanella in his place, who astonished his audience by the force of his argument against Aristotle. In 1590 he published his own opinions; the work gained him some admirers, but so many enemies that he left Naples and went successively to Rome, Venice, Florence, Padua, and Bologna. In 1598 he returned to Naples, and went thence to his native place. Being suspected of joining a conspiracy against the Spanish government, he was seized and put to the rack, and finally carried to Spain and imprisoned. In 1626 Pope Urban VIII. obtained his extradition from Philip IV. of Spain, and he was transferred to the inquisition at Rome. He was set at liberty in 1629, and in 1634 fled to France. By the aid of Richelieu he received from Louis XIII. a pension of 2,000 livres. He entered a Dominican convent, where he ended his life.

Campanella was distinguished rather for undermining other systems than for raising one of his own. His most celebrated works were written during his imprisonment. Among them are the following: Philosophia Rationalis; Universalis Phi-losophia; Apologia pro Galilceo (4to, 1622); De Pradestinatione, Electione, Peprobatione, et Auxiliis Divinm Gratia, contra Thomisticos (Paris, 1636); and De Monarchia Hispanica (translated into English, London, 1634).