Transylvania (Hun. Erdely; Ger. Sieben-bilrgen), a grand duchy of the Austro-IIungarian monarchy, now forming part of the lands of the Hungarian crown, bounded W. and N. by Hungary proper, N. E. and E. by the Bukowina and Roumania, and S. by Rou-mania. It is situated between lat. 45° 12' and 47° 42' N., and Ion. 22° 24' and 26° 30' E.; area, according to the last changes of the frontiers, 21,216 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,115,024. Capital, Klausenburg. The country is surrounded on all sides by mountains belonging to the Carpathian system, and the surface is much diversified, being traversed by several mountain ranges, between which there are numerous fine valleys and plains. The principal chain extends along the E. and S. frontiers, and sends out many offsets. The range which forms the N. W. boundary toward Hungary is properly designated as the Transylvanian Ore mountains. The most elevated points lie near the S. boundary, in the so-called Transylvanian Alps, where Mt. Negoi has a height of more than 8,000 ft. above the sea, and Mt. Bucsesd is very little lower. The Tomos, Red Tower, and Vulcan passes lead through this range.
The whole drainage belongs to the basin of the Danube, the chief rivers being the Aluta (Hun. Olt), the Maros with its tributaries the Great and Little Kokel (Kukullo), the Bistritz (Besz-tercze), the Szamos, and the Koros. There are several lakes. - The climate varies greatly according to elevation. In the valleys the heat of summer is very great, but in the more elevated districts the winter temperature is remarkably severe and so long continued as to cause serious injury to vegetation. Gold is found in most of the streams in greater or less quantities; a number of gold mines are worked, and are said to be very productive. Silver mines are also worked, and there is one of quicksilver. Copper, lead, iron, antimony, arsenic, tin, coal, alum, bitumen, saltpetre, and salt are all found; together with crystals and valuable pebbles, including garnets, chrysolites, amethysts, chalcedonies, agates, carnelians, and jaspers. A bed of rock salt extends in a belt 60 to 80 m. wide through the whole country, from which great quantities are extracted, as well as from numerous springs. In the more elevated parts vegetation is scanty, but lower down luxuriant forests make their appearance, which yield many kinds of valuable timber.
The valleys and plains are particularly fertile, and, although agriculture is in a backward state, yield good crops of various kinds of grain, pulse, maize, hemp, flax, tobacco, saffron, and madder; and the vine and fruits are very generally cultivated. Great numbers of horses, horned cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and pigs are reared, large herds of the last named being fed in the forests. Game is abundant, and the rivers are well supplied with fish. The manufactures consist principally of coarse linen and woollen goods, native silk, different kinds of metals, paper, gunpowder, leather, porcelain and earthenware, glass, stearine candles, soap, furniture, and numerous articles in wood. - The population is composed of various races, including Magyars or Hungarians proper, Szek-lers, Saxons, Roumans or Wallachs, Ruthenians, gypsies, Armenians, Greeks, Jews, and Bulgarians. The Roumans are by far the most numerous, being about three fifths of the whole. The gypsies number about 88,000. The religions most numerously professed are the non-united and united Greek (chiefly by the Ruthenians and Roumans), Roman Catholic (by the Magyars), Calvinist (by the Magyars), Lutheran (by the Saxons), and Unitarian (by the Szeklers). The Magyars and Saxons have the best schools; those belonging to some of the others are of a very inferior character.
The first Transylvanian university was opened at Klausenburg in 1872. The Szeklers, or properly Szekelys, who are believed by some to be descendants of the Huns, and by others of the Petchenegs and other tribes kindred to the Magyars, use a dialect little different from the language of the latter, this being also spoken by the Bulgarians and Armenians. The Saxons are descendants of German settlers from Flanders, the lower Rhine, the Hartz, and Thuringia, who established themselves in Transylvania especially about the middle of the 12th century, where they are unmixed with other races, and speak their own language, the German. They formerly enjoyed various privileges, based chiefly on a charter granted them by King Andrew II. in 1224, and more equality of rights than the other races. Together with the Magyars and Szeklers they formed the constitutionally ruling people, but now all nationalities enjoy equal rights. The country is therefore divided into the lands of the Hungarians (chiefly in the northwest and west), of the Szeklers (in the east), and of the Saxons (in the south and northeast). The land of the Hungarians is subdivided into the counties or comitats (me-gyelc) of Klausenburg (Kolozs), Doboka, Inner Szolnok, Thorda, Kokelburg (Kukullo), Upper Weissenburg (Fejervar), Lower Weissenburg, and Hunyad, and the districts of Fogaras and Naszod; the land of the Szeklers into the seats (szekek) of Aranyos, Maros, Udvarhely, Csik, and Harom-Szek; and the land of the Saxons into the seats (Stuhle) of Hermannstadt, Broos, Muhlenbach, Reissmarkt, Mediasch, Schiiss-burg, Gross-Schenk, Leschkirch, and Reps, and the districts of Kronstadt and Bistritz. Besides the capital, the most important towns are Hermannstadt, Kronstadt, Vasarhely-on-the-Maros, Bistritz, and the fortress Carlsburg. The constitution of Transylvania before the revolution of 1848-9, during which it was reunited with Hungary, resembled that of the latter country, but was more complicated, owing to numerous reserved privileges.
It was abolished by the Austrians in 1849, and restored in 1861, though not in its full vigor. In 1867 Transylvania was again fully united with Hungary, and its separate diet abolished. - Transylvania in the time of the Roman empire belonged to Dacia, was subsequently overrun by the Huns, Goths, Gepidae, Lombards, Bulgarians, Avars, Petchenegs, and other tribes, and in the 10th and 11th centuries conquered by the Hungarians, who ruled it by waywodes, for a time disputing its possession with the Cumans. Having shared the fate of Hungary for centuries, it became an independent principality during the Turkish-Austrian wars in the early part of the lGth century, and was ruled among others by the Zapolyas, the Ba-thoris, Bocskay, Bethlen, the Rakoczys, and the Apafis, until it was finally annexed to Austria in 1713. (See Hungary, vol. ix., pp. ' 57-61, Bathori, Bethlen, Rakoczy, and Za-polya.) The antagonism between the Rou-mans and Magyars, which in 1848 led to a bloody rising of the former, has not entirely subsided, and more or less secret agitations in favor of a union of Transylvania with Rou-mania, the united countries to form a strong Dacian realm, not unfrequently alarm the Hungarian government.
The Saxons, too, hold themselves in opposition to the leadership of the Hungarians. On the E. and S. frontiers the people down to a late date held their land under the tenure of protecting the country against foreign aggression in these directions, the hardy and warlike Szeklers in the east constituting the principal strength of this military frontier organization. - See " Transylvania, its Products and its People," by Charles Boner (London, 1865), and Voyage aux regions rainieres de la Transylvanie occidentale, by Eli-see Reclus (Paris, 1873).
Transylvania, a S. W. county of North Carolina, bordering on South Carolina; area, about 475 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 3,536, of whom 309 were colored. It contains the sources of the French Broad river, and is almost entirely surrounded and occupied by mountains. The soil of the valleys is fertile and well adapted to stock raising. The chief productions in 1870 were 12,476 bushels of rye, 95,633 of Indian corn, 8,142 of Irish and 3,101 of sweet potatoes, 18,844 lbs. of wool, 6,301 of tobacco, and 24,129 of butter. There were 504 horses, 1,197 milch cows, 2,712 other cattle, 4,721 sheep, and 6,490 swine. Capital, Brevard.