Triumvirate, an office filled coordinately by three persons. Several magistracies of this description were recognized in the Roman government, of which the most important was that for the regulation of public affairs - triumviri reipiiblicoe constituendce. Though magistrates with this title are thought to -have been appointed as early as 360 B. C, there is no certain mention of them till toward the close of the republic. The coalition between Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, in GO B. C, is often called the first triumvirate, but they were never invested with any office under that title. The so-called second triumvirate of Octavius, Antony, and Lepidus (43) was the first sanctioned by the people. The office was bestowed on them for five years, and after the expiration of that term for five years more. Administration by triumvirs was apparently much favored by Roman legislators. The triumviri capitales had charge of the prisons and jurisdiction in minor cases; the triumviri nocturni had charge of the police at night.

Mazzini, Armellini, and Saffi formed in February, 1849, a triumvirate at Rome, with the entire executive power placed in their hands.