Troglodytes (Gr.τρωγλοδύτης, from ττρώ-τρώ-γλη, a cave, and δύειν, to enter), the name given by the ancients to tribes of men who lived in caves. Several such are mentioned by ancient writers as inhabiting parts of Ethiopia, Upper Egypt, the borders of the Red sea, Moesia, Mauritania, and the northern part of the Caucasus. The most celebrated were those of southern Egypt and Ethiopia, where a large district was called Regio Troglodytica. They are represented as depending upon cattle for their livelihood, and living in the most debased condition. In part of Arabia the mountainous regions encompassing the wadys are filled with caves, which are occupied as permanent habitations by half savage tribes of Bedouins; and it is probable that these belong to the same race as the troglodytic population of Ptolemy and other Greek geographers. In the early history of the Christian church the name was also applied to certain heretics, who, rejected by all parties, held their meetings in caves. - In natural history, Linnaeus placed the chimpanzee under the genus homo with the specific name of troglodytes, next to homo sapiens; and this is the troglodytes niger of Geoffroy and the simia troglodytes of Blu-menbach. The term is now applied to a genus which includes the chimpanzee and the gorilla, and also to a genus of the troglodytince or wren family of birds.