Troy (Troja), the name of an ancient city in the N. W. part of Asia Minor, applied also to its territory. The latter, generally known as the Troad (Troas), comprised for a time the coast lands on the Propontis, Hellespont, Aegean sea, and Adramyttian gulf, as far E. as the river Rhodius, the Granicus, or even the Aesepus, but later, according to Strabo, only the region from the promontory of Lectum to the Hellespont. The city of Troy, also called Ilium ("Iv), according to the Homeric poems, was situated at the foot of Mt. Ida, far enough from the sea to allow of the movements of two large armies, and in a position which commanded a view of the plain before it and of a smaller one behind it. In front of it were two rivers, the Simo´s and Scamander, flowing parallel for some distance, which united and emptied into the Hellespont, between the promontories of Sigeum and RhOeteum. This city, the existence of which is attested only by the traditions of the Trojan war, must be distinguished from the Ilium of history, which, according to Strabo, was founded about the beginning of the 7th centnry B. 0. The former was afterward designated as Old Ilium, and the latter as New Ilium. The name was shared also by a third place in the same region, the "the village of the Ilians," about 3 m. from New Ilium, which claimed to occupy the site of the original Ilium. - According to the legend, Dardanus was the mythical ancestor of the Trojan kings, who were of the Teucrian race, closely connected with the My-sian. (See Mysia.) Dardanus's son was Erich-thonius, who was succeeded by Tros, and he by Ilus, who founded in the plain of Troy the city of Ilium. Ilus was succeeded by Laome-don, and to him Neptune and Apollo became temporarily subject by command of Jupiter. The former built the walls of the city, and the latter took care of the herds; but when their time of service had expired, Laomedon treacherously refused to pay what was due them.

In revenge Neptune sent a sea monster to kill the Trojans and ravage their fields, and the treacherous king in consequence made a public offer of the immortal horses given by Jupiter to Tros to any one who could rid the land of the monster. The oracle declared that a virgin of noble blood must be given up, and the lot fell on Hesione, Laomedon's own daughter; but she was rescued by Hercules, who came at this time and killed the monster. Laomedon gave the hero mortal horses, and the latter, indignant at this perfidy, collected six ships, attacked and captured Troy, killed Laomedon, and placed on the throne Priam, who alone of Laomedon's sons had remonstrated against the perfidy of his father. To him were born by his wife Hecuba a large number of children, one of whom, Paris, brought on by his abduction of Helen, the wife of Menelaus, the memorable siege of Troy. To revenge this outrage, the Greeks spent ten years in the collection of a vast armament, and at the end of that time a fleet of 1,186 ships, containing more than 100,000 men, was assembled at Aulis in BOeotia, and placed under the command of Agamemnon. The Trojans and their allies were driven within the walls of their city, and nine years were spent by the Grecian host in the reduction of the neighboring towns.

But the gods now brought on the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles, which proved so disastrous to the Greeks, and with which the narrative of the siege in the Iliad opens. Among the principal Greek heroes in the struggle, besides Agamemnon, Menelaus, and Achilles, were Ulysses, Ajax the son of Tela-mon, Diomedes, Patroclus, and Palamedes; and among the bravest defenders of Troy, Hector, Sarpedon, and Aeneas. The valor of Achilles, who slew Hector in revenge for the death of Patroclus, and the cunning of Ulysses finally prevailed, with the aid of Juno, Minerva, and other divinities hostile to the Trojans; and after a siege of ten years (generally placed at about 1194-1184 B. C), Troy was utterly destroyed, Aeneas and Antenor alone escaping with their families. - The opinions of the principal authorities on the question whether the destruction of Troy was a historical event have been given in the article Homer; we shall confine ourselves here to reviewing the various attempts made to identify the site of Old Ilium, on the supposition that it once existed.

Though it was the popular belief of antiquity that New Ilium had been built on the ruins of the Old, yet that town never rose to importance, and Demetrius of Scepsis and Hestisea of Alexandria maintained that the remains of Priam's Ilium were to bo found rather in the "village of the Ilians," which opinion was supported also by Strabo. All were agreed that the ancient city stood on the right bank of the Scamander, the modern Mendereh. New Ilium was on the Scamander near the junction of the Simo´s, which is supposed to be represented by the Gumbrek or Dumbrek, about 12 m. long, now entering the Hellespont by a separate channel. The ruins of New Ilium are near the village of Hissarlik, on a small hill. The ancient historians Hel-lanicus, Xenophon, and Arrian identified this hill as the citadel of Pergamus; and Xerxes and Alexander, and the Roman consuls and emperors, here offered hecatombs to the Minerva of Ilium and the Trojan heroes. But Horace and Lucan, as well as other Roman authors, were firmly convinced that the knowledge of the site of Homeric Troy had entirely perished. In 1785 Le Chevalier discovered on the left bank of the Mendereh, near the village of Bunar-bashi, about 5 m.

S. of New Ilium, a hot and a cold spring or fountain, which he supposed to be those mentioned in the Iliad. Beyond these springs is a hill, the Balidagh, steep and lofty, with some ruins on its summit, which ho identified with ancient Troy and the citadel of Pergamus. His view was speedily adopted by Heyne, and afterward by Welcker, J. G. von Hahn, Choiseul-Gouffier, Texier, Forchham-mer, Tozer, Leake, E. Curtius, and the majority of Greek archaeologists and philologists, who until recently warmly defended it as the only possible means of harmonizing the Homeric text with the chorography and topography of the Troad. But the excavations made on the Balidagh brought to light only a few terra cotta figures, lamps, pottery, and coins of no ancient date, without revealing the foundations of a town or city. In 1871-'3 the German traveller Schliemann undertook to excavate at his own expense the hill of Hissarlik. (See ScnLiEMANN.) He dug to a depth of about 50 ft., and encountered several layers of ruins, each of which he considered to be the remains of a distinct city, one built on the ruins of the other. He unearthed a vast number of arms, household utensils, and ornaments of various degrees of workmanship and kinds of material.

He produced a treasure of vases and various ornaments of gold, amber, and silver, which he thinks belonged to Priam, the Trojan king. He maintains that he has laid bare the palace of this king, the Scosan gates before it, the Avails of Neptune and Apollo, the streets of the city, houses which must have been two or three stories high, sacrificial altars to Minerva, and 20 fountains, besides inscriptions of various dates and in several languages and dialects. In view of the fact that but few scholars are yet inclined to consider the existence and destruction of the Homeric Ilium a historical fact, and that almost all authorities are agreed that only the Balidagh near Bunarbashi was chosen by the poet as the central scene of his epic, the results of Schliemann's excavations have so far been looked upon, if not with suspicion, yet with little confidence in the identification which he claims to have made. At present (1876) the opinion generally entertained is that he has accidentally hit upon the site of some unknown Hunnic settlement, Lydian town, or Phoenician trading post. - See Lechevalier, Voyage de la Troade (3 vols., 3d ed., Paris, 1802); Forchhammer, Be-Bchreibung der Ebene von Troja (Frankfort, 1850); Hahn, Die Ausgrabiingen auf dem ho-merischen Pergamo's (Leipsic, 1865); Tozer, " Lectures on the Geography of Greece " (London, 1873); and Schliemann, "Troy and its Remains," edited by Dr. Philip Smith (1875).