Trumbull, a N. E. county of Ohio, bordering on Pennsylvania, watered by Grand and Mahoning rivers; area, 625 sq.m.; pop. in 1870, 38,659. The surface is undulating and well timbered, and the soil fertile and adapted to dairy farming. Pymatuning swamp occupies part of the county. It is intersected by the Atlantic and Great Western railroad and branches, and by the Pennsylvania and Ohio canal. The chief productions in 1870 were 113,476 bushels of wheat, 16,229 of rye, 383,-662 of Indian corn, 433,407 of oats, 156,912 of potatoes, 36,194 of flax seed, 213,572 lbs. of wool, 140,723 of maple sugar, 4,651,796 of flax, 1,162,581 of butter, 1,368,595 of cheese, and 59,481 tons of hay. There were 8,067 horses, 19,811 milch cows, 14,297 other cattle, 47,168 sheep, and 7,580 swine; 1 manufactory of bagging, 22 of carriages and wagons, 20 of cheese, 11 of cooperage, 5 of dressed flax, 7 of furniture, 16 of iron, 4 of machinery, 1 of linseed oil, 13 flour mills, 6 tanneries, 4 currying establishments, 3 breweries, 8 planing mills, and 30 saw mills.
Jonathan, an American revolutionist, born in Lebanon, Conn., Oct. 12,1710, died there, Aug. 17, 1785. He graduated at Harvard college in 1727, studied theology, and was licensed to preach, but in 1731 took the place of an elder brother, who was lost at sea, in his father's mercantile business. In 1733 ho was elected to the general assembly of Connecticut, of which in 1739 he became speaker. He was chosen an assistant in 1740, and was reelected 22 times. He became afterward judge of the county court, assistant judge of the superior court, and from 1766 to 1769 was chief judge of the superior court. In 1767 and 1768 he was elected deputy governor, and in 1769 governor of the colony, which office he held till 1783, when he resigned. He was one of the first to espouse the popular cause in the troubles preceding the revolution, and in 1765 refused to take the oath required of all officials to support the provisions of the stamp act; and he cooperated with vigor in securing the independence of the colonies. Washington relied on him, says Sparks, " as one of his main pillars of support," and was accustomed to consult him in emergencies.
The personification humorously applied to the United States is said to have had its origin in a phrase sometimes used by Washington: "Let us hear what brother Jonathan says." - See I. W. Stuart's "Life of Jonathan Trumbull, sen." (8vo, Boston, 1859).
Jonathan, son of the preceding, born in Lebanon, Conn., March 26, 1740, died there, Aug. 7, 1809. He graduated at Harvard college in 1759, and was for several years a member of the legislature and speaker of the house. At the outbreak of the revolution he was appointed paymaster to the northern department of the army, which post he held till 1780, when he became secretary and first aide-de-camp of Washington, with whom he remained until the close of the war. He was a representative in congress from 1789 to 1795, and presided as speaker during the last four years. In 1795 he was elected United States senator, and in 1796 lieutenant governor of Connecticut. He became governor in 1797, and held the office until his death.
John, an American painter, brother of the preceding, born in Lebanon, Conn., June 6, 1756, died in New York, Nov. 10, 1843. He graduated at Harvard college in 1773, and afterward studied painting in Boston. In the spring of 1775 he joined the first Connecticut regiment as adjutant, and in August became second aide-de-camp to Washington, and soon after major of brigade. In 1776 he was appointed by Gen. Gates adjutant general with the rank of colonel, which office he resigned-in the spring of 1777. In 1780 he went to London and became a pupil of Benjamin West, but was arrested soon after, during the excitement occasioned by the execution of Major André, and imprisoned for eight months. He was finally admitted to bail on condition of quitting the kingdom within 30 days, and returned home in January, 1782; but on the conclusion of peace he again went to England and resumed his studies under West. In 1786 he produced his first modern historical picture, the "Battle of Bunker Hill," and soon after his "Death of Montgomery before Quebec," the former of which was engraved by J. G. Müller of Stuttgart, and the latter by F. Clemens of London. His next picture, the "Sortie of the Garrison from Gibraltar," one of the repetitions of which is in the Boston Athenaeum, is widely known through Sharp's engraving.
In 1789 Trumbull returned to America to procure likenesses of revolutionary officers for his contemplated series of national pictures. He painted several portraits of Washington, one of which belongs to the city of New York. In 1794 he went again to England as secretary to Mr. Jay, the American minister, and in 1796 was appointed fifth commissioner for the execution of the seventh article of Mr. Jay's treaty of 1794. The duties of this 6ffice occupied him till 1804, when he returned to the United States. From 1808 to 1815 he resided in England, painting with indifferent success; and from 1817 to 1824 he was employed in executing for congress four pictures to fill compartments in the rotunda of the capi-tol, each 18 by 12 ft. For these works, which represent respectively the "Declaration of Independence," the " Surrender of Burgoyne," the " Surrender of Cornwallis," and the "Resignation of Washington at Annapolis," he received $32,000. Subsequently for many years he was engaged in finishing former sketches and in painting copies of his national pictures on a uniform scale of 9 by 6 ft.
Many of these, together with portraits and several copies of the old masters, 54 pictures in all, he finally gave to Yale college in consideration of a life annuity of $1,000. The collection was at first deposited in the "Trumbull gallery," a building erected especially for it, but in 1867 it was transferred to the new art building. Col. Trumbull passed the latter part of his life in New York, and was president of the American aeademy of fine arts from its foundation in 1816 until the formation of the national academy of design in 1825.