Tuscaloosa, a W. county of Alabama, intersected by the Black Warrior and Sipsey rivers; area, 1,450 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 20,081, of whom 8,294 were colored. The surface is hilly and the soil highly fertile. Iron ore, bituminous coal, and carboniferous limestone are found. The Alabama and Chattanooga railroad traverses it. The chief productions in 1870 were 7,551 bushels of wheat, 343,569 of Indian corn, 7,718 of oats, 6,951 of peas and beans, 41,262 of sweet potatoes, 120,010 lbs. of butter, and 6,458 bales of cotton. There were 1,245 horses, 1,378 mules and asses, 2,768 milch cows, 5,418 other cattle, 6,139 sheep, and 11,046 swine; 2 manufactories of cotton goods, 1 of iron castings, 2 of stone and earthen ware, 2 flour mills, 2 tanneries, 2 currying establishments, and 1 saw mill. Capital, Tuscaloosa.
Tuscaloosa, a city of Alabama, capital of Tuscaloosa co., and of the state from 1826 to 1846, on the left bank of the Black Warrior river, at the head of steamboat navigation, 90 m. N. W. of Montgomery; pop. in 1870, 1,689, of whom 787 were colored; in 1875, about 2,500. The Alabama and Chattanooga railroad passes within a mile. The. streets are wide and well shaded. A mile above the town are the grounds of the university of Alabama. The buildings, with their contents, were burned in 1865, and have been only partially restored. In 1874-'5 the university had eight professors, besides other officers, 74 students, and a library of 4,000 volumes. The Alabama insane hospital, about a mile beyond the university, has a front of 780 ft., with extensive outbuildings and grounds. It was opened in 1860, and now has about 360 inmates. Situated at the head of the cotton-planting and at the foot of the mineral region of Alabama, Tuscaloosa is the centre of trade for a district containing rich resources, as yet but imperfectly developed. It has a considerable trade in cotton, wheat, coal, etc. There are flour mills, a shoe and leather manufactory, and an extensive cotton factory in the vicinity.
It has a national bank with a capital of $56,000, two weekly newspapers, and one male and four female seminaries, one of the latter being in the old state capitol. There are five churches: Baptist, Episcopal, Methodist, Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic. The city, county, and river take their name from the Indian chief Tuscaloosa ("black warrior "), who was defeated by De Soto in the bloody battle of Mavilla, Oct. 18, 1540.