Tuscaroras, one of the Six Nations of Iroquois, which separated from the others at an early period, and according to tradition went southwest and then southeast to North Carolina. They were divided into seven clans, and about the year 1700 occupied 15 villages and had 1,200 warriors. In 1711 they attempted to massacre the whites, but troops were called from South Carolina, and Barnwell routed them in the battle of the Neuse, Jan. 28, 1712, killing and wounding 400. They made peace, but hostilities were soon resumed. Col. Moore marohed against Nahucke, a Tuscarora fort near Snowhill, and took it March 20, 1713, capturing 800 prisoners, who were given to his Indian allies. The remaining Tuscaroras fled, most of them making their way to New York. The Tuscaroras under Tom Blunt had taken no part in the hostilities. A treaty had been made with them, Nov. 25, 1712, and Blunt was made king of all the tribe in Carolina. They were placed first on Pamlico river, and were afterward removed to the Roanoke in the present Bertie co. Those who removed to New York were well received by the Five Nations and allowed to settle at the S. E. end of Oneida lake, and were formally admitted as a sixth nation in the league.

During the wars with the French the Tuscaroras served under the English. In 1766 the Carolina band leased part of their lands for 150 years, and 160 removed to New York. During the revolution they sided with congress, and some of their chiefs were commissioned as captains and lieutenants; and in 1794 the United States indemnified the tribe for losses during the war. The whole tribe in time removed from North Carolina, continuing to receive rents for their lands; but as this caused difficulties, an arrangement was made by which North Carolina in 1829 sold the reversion and paid the money to the tribe. The tribe in New York occupied a reservation on Niagara ridge given them by the Senecas and confirmed by the state of New York, and an adjoining tract purchased by them from the Holland land company. A Baptist mission and school were established among them about 1800, and they have since advanced in agriculture and the arts of civilized life. In 1874 there were 388 Tuscaroras on the reservation, and there are a number in Canada with the bands of the Six Nations who emigrated thither.

The name Tuscarora means shirt wearer, and must be of comparatively recent adoption.