Ulm, a city of Würtemberg, capital of the circle of the Danube, situated in a fertile valley on the left bank of the Danube at its junction with the Iller and Blau, and at the foot of the E. spurs of the Swabian Alps, 45 m. S. E. of Stuttgart; pop. in 1871, 26,214. The Danube becomes here fully navigable, and forms the boundary between Würtemberg and Ba varia. The town has the quaint and stately aspect of most former imperial cities, and contains many memorable public and private buildings. The Munster is one of the most celebrated achievements of early German architecture, and one of the largest Protestant churches in Germany. Its stained glass windows are of remarkable finish, and it has many works of art and a very large organ. The tower, originally designed to be 500 ft. high, only rises to about 250 ft. The edifice has been for some time in process of restoration. The provincial authorities occupy the former palace of the order of Teutonic knights, and there is also a royal palace. The city library, one of the earliest in Germany, contains a collection of remarkable antiquities.
Ulm is one of the great commercial centres of Würtemberg, though railway traffic has become a formidable rival of the trade on the Danube. The railways to Stuttgart, Friedrichshafen, Augsburg, Kempten, and Blaubeuern all form a junction at Ulm in a single station. The products include fine flour and pipe bowls, which have a wide reputation. The trade is especially active in deals. - Ulm was formerly an imperial city of the Swabian circle, and held the most prominent place in the Swabian diet. In the 15th century it had more than 50,000 inhabitants, besides 40,000 in the adjoining territory, then belonging to the town. Its wealth became proverbial, but the strategical importance of Ulm involved it in nearly all great German wars. In 1803 it was annexed to Bavaria. The Austrian general Mack surrendered here to Napoleon, Oct. 20, 1805, with his entire army of 23,000 men. Subsequently it was restored to Bavaria, and in 1810 it was allotted to Würtemberg, the former country retaining only the village of Neu-Ulm, on the opposite bank of the Danube. The extensive fortifications of Ulm are situated partly in Wiirtemberg, partly in Bavarian territory.