Ulster, a S. E. county of New York, bounded E. by the Hudson river, and drained by the Esopus, Rondout, and Wallkill creeks; area, 1,204 sq. m.; pop. in 1875, 88,271. The surface is broken by the Catskill and Shawangunk ridges, and the soil is generally best adapted to grazing. Iron ore, limestone, slate, and marl are found, and there are indications of the existence of coal, lead, plumbago, and alum. Large quantities of flagging stone are exported. The Delaware and Hudson canal passes through it, and it is also intersected by the New York, Kingston, and Syracuse railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 42,532 bushels of wheat, 107,502 of rye, 394,004 of Indian corn, 447,837 of oats, 132,515 of buckwheat, 688,435 of potatoes, 1,631,956 lbs. of butter, 41,595 of wool, and 97,995 tons of hay. There were 8,928 horses, 17,640 milch cows, 12,597 other cattle, 14,119 sheep, and 14,070 swine. There were 690 manufacturing establishments; capital invested, $4,938,201; value of products, $10,213,187. The principal manufactories were 54 of carriages and wagons, 3 of hubs and wagon material, 10 of bricks, 11 of cement, 13 of cooperage, 2 of edge tools and axes, 14 of furniture,1 of glass ware, 9 of iron, 3 of lime, 4 of machinery, 7 of marble and stone work, 1 of paints, 4 of paper, 5 of woollens, 38 saw mills, 6 breweries, 15 tanneries, and 34 flour mills.
Ulster, one of the four provinces of Ireland, constituting the N. part of the island, bounded W. and N. by the Atlantic ocean, E. by the North channel and Irish sea, S. E. by Leinster, and S. W. by Connaught; area, about 8,550 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 1,830,398, nearly half of them Protestants. It is divided into the counties of Antrim, Armagh, Cavan, Donegal, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, Monaghan, and Tyrone. The coasts are generally rugged and indented by numerous bays and harbors, the chief of which are Carlingford bay, Dundrum bay, Strangford lough, Belfast lough, Lough Lame, Lough Foyle, Lough Swilly, Mulroy bay, Sheep Haven, ami Donegal bay. The principal rivers are the Erne, Foyle, Bann, and Lagan. A considerable part of the surface is mountainous, and two chains traverse the province from E. to W., the highest peaks being in the counties of Donegal and Down; Errigal in the former and Slieve Donard in the latter are respectively 2,460 and 2,796 ft. high. Between these ranges is an extensive tract of undulating ground, near the centre of which is Lough Neagh. Other large lakes are Upper and Lower Lough Erne, and Loughs Melvin, Sheelin, Oughter, Derg, Esk, and Yeagh. Ulster is the seat of the Irish linen manufacture, which supports about one fourth of the population.
Cotton is extensively manufactured in Belfast and vicinity. Internal communication is facilitated by railways and canals, and numerous excellent roads. - Ulster was partly conquered and held as an earldom under Henry II. by John de Courcy, from whom it was transferred to Hugh de Lacy; and by descent from him, through the De Burgh and Mortimer families, the title was merged in the crown of England under Edward IV. James I. colonized Ulster with Scotch and English Protestant settlers, to whom he gave grants of land in lots of 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 acres. The insurrection of 1641 was to overthrow these Protestant settlements. Several towns were taken, the country was devastated, many thousand lives were sacrificed, and it was not till 1649 that the rebellion was completely quelled.