University (Lat. Universitas), a corporation, consisting of the teachers or students, or teachers and students, of an educational institution, empowered to confer degrees in one or more faculties. The word universitas denoted primarily an aggregate of persons or things; in its secondary sense it was used to designate a society or corporation, but without necessarily any reference to education. Thus there were in Rome universities of priests, musicians, bakers, etc. In the beginning of the middle ages institutions of learning were called schola, stulium, or studium generate, and afterward iiniversitas magistrorum, doctorum, or scholarium. The university of Paris was a corporation of teachers, that of Bologna of students, while Salamanca partook of both characteristics. The remainder of the Italian and nearly all of the French universities were also associations of students, but the English and German universities were modelled after that of Paris. - The modern university, which had no exact counterpart in the ancient academies, had its origin in the schools which grew up around the monasteries and cathedrals of Europe. These began about the 6th century, and took the place of the Roman imperial schools which had fallen with the irruptions of the barbarians, but previous to the reign of Charlemagne they were of little importance.

That emperor called around him learned men from all countries, and established cathedral and conventual schools in his principal cities; under his successors these became centres of learning, in which was taught all the erudition of the age. The fame of some successful teacher in any of these schools attracted thither other lecturers and many students, who in time formed unions or associations for mutual benefit, and thus laid the foundations of the universities. The oldest of these, the university of Paris, owed its early celebrity to the teachings of William of Champeaux, who taught logic in Paris in 1109, and of Abelard, his pupil and rival. Peter Lombard, a student of Bologna and afterward of Paris, taught theology there in the same century, and added to its reputation; and it is said that its students in 1150 exceeded the citizens in number. These were connected with many different schools, some of which were appendages of the churches and monasteries in and around Paris, and some private schools gathered around noted lecturers. Toward the end of the 12th century all were formed into a corporate body by Philip Augustus, but it does not appear that the term university was applied to it before the beginning of the 13th century.

It is probable that it had formed several organizations previous to this consolidation; for the students of the arts and sciences were divided as early as 1169 into four provinces or nations: the French nation, including, besides French, natives of Spain, Italy, and Greece; the Picard, students from N. E. France and the Netherlands; the Norman, those from W. France; and the English (called German after 1430), those from England, Ireland, Scotland, and Germany. Each'nation was governed by a procurator. The university comprised at first but two faculties, that of arts and sciences, and that of theology; law and medicine were added in the 13th century. Each faculty, excepting that of arts and sciences, had at its head a dean, and the three deans and the four procurators constituted a council, in which, under the presidency of the rector, who was elective, was vested the government of the university. The power of conferring degrees belonged to the chancellor alone. There were two chancellors, one appointed by the bishop of Paris, and one by the abbot of Ste. Genevieve, in whose lands were situated a part of the university buildings; the former, who took precedence, was chancellor of the three higher faculties, the latter of the faculty of arts.

Academic degrees were conferred as early as the middle of the 12th century, and probably before, but their origin is unknown. At first the degree of master was synonymous with that of doctor, and was conferred on those who were competent to teach; but afterward the former was confined to those who taught the arts, and the latter to those who gave instruction in theology, law, or medicine. Bachelors were those who had passed through the curriculum of study, which required three and a half years; after a second equal period of study and the passing of the requisite examinations, they became masters and were qualified to teach the seven liberal arts within the limits of the university. Pope Nicholas I. gave the university the power of endowing its graduates with the privilege of teaching everywhere. For the doctor's degree in divinity nine years' additional study was required. As many of the thousands of students who annually flocked to Paris were poor, colleges were early established by individuals and by religious orders, where at first free board and lodging only were dispensed; but many of them finally became places of instruction also. Toward the close "of the. 15th century there were 18 large colleges belonging to the faculty of arts, and 80 smaller ones.

At this time nearly all students belonged to some of the colleges. Those who were unattached to any were called martinets. (See College.) The university of Paris was endowed with extraordinary privileges, and was so powerful that it sometimes resisted even the royal authority. It did not acknowledge the jurisdiction of ordinary judges, but had its own courts and its representatives in the states general. During the wars of the league it lost its political importance, and in 1793, by a decree of the convention, it was suppressed. Napoleon I., by the law of 1806 and the decrees of 1808 and 1811, established a national organization embracing all public instruction under the name of the university of France, at the head of which was a grand master assisted by a university council. This comprised several sections called academies, each embracing several departments, and each governed by a rector assisted by an academical council. This great institution monopolized all higher instruction until 1875, when the law permitting the establishment of universities independent of the state was passed.

But the university of France is still maintained, and in 1875 had subordinate to it 16 academies, with the following centres: Aix, Besancon, Bordeaux, Caen, Chambéry, Clermont, Dijon, Douai, Grenoble, Lyons, Montpellier, Nancy, Paris, Poitiers, Rennes, and Toulouse. A complete academy, like that of Paris, has the five faculties of theology, law, medicine, science, and letters; but most of the other provincial centres have only three or four faculties. The academy of Paris has a very large corps of professors and usually from 7,000 to 8,000 students. The provincial academies average about 1,500 students. The university of France, which alone has the power to confer degrees, is now under the direct control of the minister of education. A new Roman Catholic university was projected in Paris in 1875. The other universities of France, all of which were suppressed with that of Paris in 1793, and some of which were afterward reestablished as academies, were as follows: Montpellier, celebrated as a medical school, founded in 1176; Toulouse, famous as a school of law, 1228; Angers, 1246; Lyons, 1290; Orleans, 1309; Grenoble, 1339, removed to Valence in 1452; Avignon and Perpignan, 1340; Orange, 1365; Aix, 1409; Dole, 1422, removed to Besancon in 1676; Poitiers, 1431; Caen, 1433; Bordeaux, 1441; Valence, 1452; Nantes, 1463; Bourges, 1463; Rheims, 1547; Douai, 1568; Besancon, 1676; Pau and Dijon, 1722; Nancy, 1769. - Of nearly equal antiquity with the university of Paris is that of Bologna, which attained fame as a law school under Irnerius early in the 12th century.

Some writers have endeavored to connect it with a school established there in the 5th century by Theodosius II. and revived by Charlemagne, but it had no claim to be called a university before the 12th century. A similar claim of the university of Pavia to have been founded by Charlemagne in 774 rests on no better foundation. Bologna was granted a charter of privileges in 1158 by Frederick Barbarossa. The students were divided into two universities, citramontani or natives of Italy, and ultramontani or foreigners, the former divided into 17 and the latter into 18 nations. Each nation had a presiding officer called a counsellor, except the German, which had instead two procurators. Toward the close of the 12th century rectors were chosen, one for each university, by the combined votes of the counsellors and of electors chosen from the university at large. For a long time the students of arts and of medicine were enrolled in the university of law, and it was not till 1316 that their right to form a separate university was acknowledged. A university of theology was established in 1362, the members of which were all doctors, the students being enrolled among the scholars of art. Degrees were conferred at Bologna at a very early period.

The first teachers were called dominus, magister, causidicus, and judex. Eight years' study was required for the degree of doctor of civil law, and six years' for that of canon law. These degrees were conferred upon learned men and women alike, and the latter were even permitted to hold professorships until a late period. Fixed salaries were paid to professors at Bologna as early as the 13th century, and in the 17th century the city expended annually about 40,000 crowns in salaries. The university of Salerno was as celebrated in medicine as that of Paris in theology and science, and that of Bologna in law. It attained its greatest fame in the 12th century, although it existed as a school several centuries earlier. Students were obliged to study logic for three years in this university before beginning the study of medicine, which occupied them five years longer, and they were not then admitted to a degree until they had practised for a year under a skilled physician. As at Bologna, women as well as men were admitted to the privileges of the university, and in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries several of its female graduates were noted as physicians and as writers of medical treatises. (See Medicine, vol. xi., p. 348.) Of the present Italian universities, those classified in the accompanying table are royal universities, maintained by the government.

In these the faculty of theology has been abolished by act of parliament, and women are admitted as students in all the faculties. The university of Rome is known as the Collegio della Sapienza. Four other universities, Camerino (founded in 1727), Perugia (1307), Ferrara (1321), and Urbino (1671), are maintained by their respective provinces. The following universities, some of which were once flourishing institutions, no longer exist: Vicenza (founded 1204), Arezzo (1215), Vercelli (1228), Piacenza (1248), Cremona (1413), Florence (1438), Milan (1565), and Mantua (1625). - Next after Paris and Bologna, the universities of Oxford and Cambridge became celebrated. About 1200 the great French and Italian schools were largely resorted to by English students; but by the middle of the 13th century Oxford was second only to Paris in the number of its students and the brilliancy of its scholarship. Its students were never divided into nations, but were governed as one body under a chancellor. In the 13th century three colleges were established, and in the 14th these were increased to seven, and most of the students were enrolled in one or the other of them.

The government of Cambridge was similar to that of Oxford, and colleges were established there about the same period. (See Cambridge, University of, and Oxford, University of.) The two other English universities, Durham and London, were founded in 1833 and 1836 respectively. The former owes its origin to an effort begun in 1649 and carried into effect in 1657, when letters patent were granted by Cromwell for its establishment, the buildings belonging to the deans and prebendaries of Durham cathedral being set apart for its use. But the restoration put an end to the project, and it was not revived till 1831; in 1832 an act of parliament permitted the appropriation of certain property belonging to the cathedral for the use of the university, which was opened the following year, and in 1837 it was incorporated and granted all the rights and privileges incident to universities created by royal charter. It now has one college, called University college, and two halls, Bishop Hatfield's, founded in 1846, and Bishop Cousin's, founded in 1851. Its general regulations for education are similar to those of Oxford and Cambridge. The university of London was created in 1836 by royal charter, the provisions of which have been several times enlarged and modified.

It confers its degrees, with a few exceptions, upon persons educated in any part of the British dominions who can satisfactorily pass its examinations. Unlike the other universities, it has no colleges immediately connected with it, but has affiliated to it nearly all the institutions of learning in the British empire, including Oxford, Cambridge, and Durham, and the Scottish and Irish universities, to the students of all of which its honors are open for competition. No degrees are conferred in course or pro causa honoris, but strict examinations are required before each degree. This institution has accomplished much good in rendering education freer from form and routine, and yet more thorough. All the English universities excepting that of London formerly required a declaration of membership in the established church as a qualification for graduation; but by the universities' test act of 1871, no student at Oxford, Cambridge, or Durham is now obliged to subscribe any profession of faith for any degree, or for the exercise of any right of graduates, excepting in divinity. - The universities of Scotland originally differed somewhat from those of England. The students were divided, as in the continental universities, into four nations, named respectively Fife, Angus, Albany, and Lothian, and the colleges were the places of residence of the teachers and not of the students.

St. Andrews had from its foundation in 1411 faculties of arts, divinity, and canon law; it now consists of two colleges, one of the arts, called the united college of St. Salvator (founded in 1456) and St. Leonard (1512), which were consolidated in 1747, and the divinity college of St. Mary's, founded in 1537. The united college has professors of medicine and chemistry, but the university has no faculties of law and medicine. The university of Glasgow, founded in 1451, was empowered from the beginning to teach theology, civil and canon law, and the arts, but only the faculty of arts was fully organized until after the reformation. It now contains the four usual faculties. The students, who reside without the college walls, are divided into four nations, Glottiana (comprising those from Lanarkshire), Transforthana (Scotland north of the Forth), Rothseiana (Buteshire, Renfrewshire, and Ayrshire), and Londoniana (all other places). The university of Aberdeen was founded in 1494, by a bull of Pope Alexander VI., which granted to it all the immunities and privileges enjoyed by Paris and Bologna. In 1505 a college was founded by Bishop Elphinstone, which was subsequently named King's college.

This constituted the entire university till 1593, when Marischal college was founded by George Keith, earl marischal. These two foundations were united by Charles I. under the name of King Charles's university of Aberdeen, but the union seems not to have been recognized, and they retained their character of distinct colleges till 1858, when they were finally incorporated in the present university. King's college now comprises the faculties of arts and divinity, and Marischal those of law and medicine. The students are divided into four nations, Mar, Buchan, Moray, and Angus. The university of Edinburgh, established in 1582 by King James VI., is a single college with the powers of a university. It originally had but one class under a single regent or teacher, but in the beginning of the 17th century it comprised a principal and four regents. Chairs of theology and medicine were instituted in 1642 and 1685 respectively, but there was no faculty of law until the beginning of the 18th century. It was under the direct control of the city corporation till 1858, when a uniform constitution was given to all the Scottish universities by the university act. By this statute each has now three governing bodies, senatus acadernicus, university court, and general council.

The senatus acadernicus has charge of the instruction and discipline, and of the property and revenues of the university; the university court reviews the decisions of the former body, and regulates the internal affairs of the university; and the general council, a deliberative body, discusses any questions affecting the university, but, having no legislative power, refers them to the university court. The chief officers of each university are a chancellor elected by the general council, a vice chancellor appointed by the chancellor, and a rector elected by the matriculated students. The rectorship is an honorary office, usually conferred upon distinguished non-residents. The degrees conferred on examination are master of arts, bachelor of divinity, of laws, and of medicine, master of surgery, and doctor of medicine; the honorary degrees are doctor of divinity and doctor of laws. Edinburgh grants, besides these, the degrees of bachelor and doctor of science. Bachelor of arts is not now conferred in any of the Scottish universities. - A university was established in Dublin in connection with St. Patrick's cathedral in 1320, by a bull of Pope John XXII., but it was never prosperous.

The present university of Dublin was founded in 1591 by Archbishop Loftus, and chartered in the following year by Queen Elizabeth as the college of the holy and undivided Trinity. This, the only college, has all the powers of a university. Its government is vested in a chancellor, a vice chancellor, a provost, a vice provost, and two proctors. The staff of professors is very full, including, in addition to the ordinary faculties, chairs of the oriental and modern languages and mining and civil engineering. The students are divided into four grades: 1, noblemen, sons of noblemen, and baronets, the two first of whom are granted the degree of bachelor of arts per specialem gratiam; 2, fellow commoners, who receive the same degree with one examination less than the pensioners; 3, pensioners, who comprise the great body of the students; 4, sizars, who are exempted from annual fees and have their commons free. The sizars are limited to 30, and are selected by competitive examination. Each grade of students wears a distinctive dress. Queen's university consists of three colleges, situated in Belfast, Cork, and Galway respectively, and each called Queen's college. Each college forms a corporate body managed by a council, consisting of the president, vice president, and the four deans of faculty.

The university government is vested in a chancellor, vice chancellor, and a senate composed of 20 persons, three of whom are the presidents of the colleges. The seat of the university is in Dublin, the meetings of the senate being usually held in Dublin castle. The Roman Catholic university of Dublin, founded in 1854, has several affiliated colleges. - The Arabs established schools at an early period in Spain, of which those at Cordova, Granada, and Malaga were celebrated before the revival of learning in Christian Europe, but they had little in common with the modern university. The first Spanish university was founded at Palencia in the latter part of the 12th century by Alfonso VIII. of Castile. About 1200 Alfonso IX. of Leon established the university of Salamanca, with which that of Palencia was united in 1239. It received its first endowment in 1254 from Alfonso X., but the country was in so unsettled a state that there was little encouragement for letters, and by 1310 the university had fallen greatly into decay. Spanish students resorted in large numbers to the Italian universities, and many to Paris and Oxford; but toward the close of the 14th century Salamanca became an efficient institution and was attended by upward of 10,000 students.

In the 16th century it again declined, and it continued to languish until the French invasion, when most of its fine buildings were destroyed. Salamanca had 28 colleges, of which four were colegios mayores, and the remainder colegios menores. The former, which were aristocratic foundations and received only students of noble birth, were San Bartolome (1410), Santiago el Cebedeo (1506), San Salvador, and Santiago Apóstolo (1521). These were the only colegios mayores in Spain, excepting one at Seville and one at Valladolid, and to be a graduate of one of them was to insure future advancement. They were deprived of their privileges and remodelled in 1770 by Charles III. The colegios menores were attended by all students not of noble birth. Besides these there were four military colleges, which ranked with the colleges of the nobles, of the respective orders of San Juan, Santiago, Alcantara, and Calatrava. Only three of these colleges exist in the present university: Santiago Apostolo, now el colegio de los nobles irlandeses, for the education of Irish students for the priesthood; San Carlos Borromeo, one of the menores, now the bishop's seminary; and El Carvajal, also one of the menores, which is still conducted on its old foundation.

Salamanca was governed by a rector assisted by an academic council of which he was the head. All students and graduates were subject to the university judiciary, at the head of which was a special official, the maestrescuela. The university comprised schools of all grades; in the escuelas mayores the course embraced theology, ecclesiastical and civil law, mathematics, natural and moral philosophy, the languages, and rhetoric; in the escuelas menores, grammar and music; and in the escuelas minimas, reading, writing, and the elements of grammar. Spain has now ten universities, each of which is intended to have five faculties: philosophy and literature, mathematical and natural sciences, pharmacy, medicine, and law; but they are not all full. Theology is now taught only in the seminaries. The present condition of all the universities is shown in the accompanying table. The following are now extinct: Huesca (founded in 1354), Sigiienza (1471), Avila (1482), Alcalá de Henares (1510, merged with Madrid in 1836), Toledo (1499), Baeza (1533), and Osuna (1548). - Portugal has but one university, Coimbra, founded at Lisbon in 1291 by Dionysius I., who transferred it to Coimbra in 1308; it was again removed to Lisbon by Alfonso IV. in 1338, and finally established at Coimbra by John III. in 1527. It now embraces 18 colleges, and has five faculties: of theology, of law, of medicine, surgery, and pharmacy, of mathematics, and of philosophy.

The rector, who is nominated by the king, presides over the concelho dos decanos, which consists of the deans of the faculties and several other officers, and has the general government of the university. Three degrees are conferred: baccalaureate, licentiate, and doctor. - The oldest universities of central Europe, including Germany, are those of Austria, that of Prague having been founded in 1348, of Cracow in 1364, and of Vienna in 1365. The statistics of these and of the other Austro-Hungarian universities are given in the table. In their general organization they are similar to the universities of the German empire, having the four regular faculties; those of theology and philosophy bear the usual designation, but that of law includes political science, and that of medicine is called the medical and surgical faculty. The medical faculty is generally the most prominent, that in the university of Vienna being especially celebrated; but of late years the number of students of law has sometimes exceeded those of medicine. The English rather than the German system of examinations prevails.

In 1872 a new university was established in Klausenburg, Transylvania, where one was founded in 1580; and in 1875 one was founded at Czernowitz. Of AiistroHungarian universities not now existing, that of Tyrnau (founded in 1635) was removed to Buda in 1777, and finally merged in that of Pesth in 1784; that of Trieste (1454) was abolished in 1797; that of Olmutz (1581) was removed to Brünn in 1778, restored to Olmutz in 1827, and abolished in 1853; and that of Salzburg (1620) was abolished in 1810. The school of Linz is not reckoned as a university because it has less than the four faculties. - The present condition of the universities of the German empire is shown in the accompanying table. The governments have supreme control over all of these institutions, the ministers of public instruction having the immediate control; and all are dependent on state appropriations, excepting Leipsic, Heidelberg, and Greifswald, which have property of their own. The government is represented in each by a curator, who is charged with the enforcement of the official regulations and laws; by the professors; and by a quaestor, who collects and pays over the fees due from students. All these officials are appointed by the ministers of public instruction.

The professors choose annually the other officers, viz.: a rector, who is the actual head of the university; a pro-rector, who acts as an assistant to the rector in the Austrian universities, but is found in the German universities only when the sovereign is nominal rector, when he performs all the duties of rector; a judge ( Universitätsrichter) or chancellor (Kanzler), who assists the rector in the decision of judicial matters; and the deans (Dekanen) of the faculties, who preside over all questions belonging to faculty jurisdiction. The senatus academicus, composed of all these officers and several of the ordinary professors, is the legislative body and executive council of the university, but is seldom convened excepting in important cases, the rector and the judge who constitute the university court having jurisdiction over all ordinary matters. All the universities have the four ordinary faculties, to which some add a faculty of political economy (staatszcirthschqftliche) and of natural science (naturwissenschqftliche). Each faculty regulates its own internal affairs through its professors and its dean, subject to the general regulations of the university.

Each faculty includes all who teach in its department of instruction, and consists of ordinary or full professors (ordentliche); extraordinary professors (ausserordentliche), who, though inferior in rank to the ordinary professors, are not necessarily assistants or subordinates; and private lecturers (Privatdocenten). In the Austrian universities are also instructors (Lehrer) and assistants (Assistenten). Entrance into the German universities is to be effected only through the gymnasium, or preparatory school, excepting in the case of foreigners, who are admitted without examination. The examination at the close of the gymnasium course, which is very thorough, is called Abiturienten-Examen (leaving examination); the successful student receives a certificate of maturity (Maturitdtszeugniss), which enables him to enroll himself, after paying a small matriculation fee, as a member of any of the universities, when he registers in whichever faculty he chooses. The course of study is usually four years, but in some of the universities five years are required in the medical faculty. Students are not obliged to remain at one university, but can study at several without loss of standing; they board and lodge where they please, and enjoy much social liberty.

Dismission from one university is no bar to entrance at another, but expulsion (Relegation) from one is expulsion from all. The principal degree conferred in each faculty is the doctorate, that of philosophy (Ph. D.) corresponding to the English and American A. M. To attain it, an oral examination is required, and a dissertation written in German or Latin. The tendency of the present system of university education in Germany is shown by the great decrease of the number of students in the theological faculties. The Prussian universities (exclusive of those in the territories annexed in 1866), which in 1831 had 2,203 theological students, had but 740 in 1873; Marburg, which had 124 in 1831, had but 46 in 1873; and Giessen, which had 80 in 1850, had only 10 in 1873." The following is a list of German universities which are now extinct, with the dates of their foundation and abolition: Cologne, 1388-1801; Erfurt, 13921816; Ingolstadt, 1472, removed to Landshut in 1800, and thence to Munich in 1826; Mentz, 1477-1798; Wittenberg, 1502, merged with Halle in 1815; Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1506, merged with Breslau in 1810; Dillingen, 15491804; Helmstedt, 1575-1809; Herborn, 15841817; Paderborn, 1614-1819; Rinteln, 1621- 1809; Altdorf, 1622, merged in 1809 with Erlangen; Munster, 1631, merged in 1818 with Bonn; Osnabriick, 1632-1650; Bamberg, 16481803; Duisburg, 1655-1804; Fulda, 17341805; Stuttgart, 1781-1794. - The Swiss universities are like the German in almost every respect, but are local rather than national, each being supported by the canton in which it is situated.

Instruction is given altogether in the German language, and most of the professors are graduates of German institutions. Their standard is scarcely second rate. Basel, the oldest, was founded in 1460. There were 32 female students at Bern in 1875, and 33 at Zurich. - The universities of Holland are also modelled after those of Germany, but have five faculties, that of philosophy being divided into letters* and theoretical philosophy. Instruction is given in great part in the Latin language, and the professors are nearly all ordinary professors. The university of Leyden, founded by William of Orange, became in the 17th century one of the most famous institutions of learning in Europe, and it still retains its high character for scholarship. In 1873 the states general voted 1,300,000 florins for the erection of new buildings and additions to the cabinet collections. The university of Franeker, founded in 1585, was suppressed by Napoleon in 1811. Of the Belgian universities, Louvain, founded about 1425, is the oldest and the most celebrated. In the 16th century it ranked as one of the first institutions of learning in Europe, its students numbered more than 6,000, and it possessed 43 colleges, some of which were munificently endowed.

It was suppressed by the French in 1797, reëstablished in 1817 by the Dutch government, again abolished by the Belgian government in 1834, and in 1835 revived as a free Roman Catholic university under the control of the bishops. It now has five faculties: theology, law, medicine, letters and philosophy, and sciences. The universities of Ghent and Liege are state institutions, and each receives from the government 350,000 francs per annum. Each contains four faculties, and Ghent has in addition a school of engineering and Liege a school of mines. They are like the German universities in their general organization, but the examinations for degrees are conducted at Brussels, by a board appointed by the king. The degrees are candidat and doctor in each of the faculties. The university of Brussels, founded in 1834 by the liberal party as a rival of Louvain, is free from sectarian bias. It comprises faculties of philosophy, natural science, jurisprudence, and medicine, and a pharmaceutical school. It is controlled by a council of administration, composed of the rector, secretary, and treasurer of the university, with the burgomaster of the city as president.

The degree of doctor in any of the faculties is conferred only on those who have been members of the university one year and have received the degree of candidat. - The oldest of the Scandinavian universities is that of Upsal in Sweden, founded in 1477 by the regent Sten Sture. The faculties and teachers are the same as in the German universities, but its general organization is modelled after the mediaeval institutions. The students are divided into nations according to the different provinces to which they belong, each nation having a building and officers of its own. The chancellor, pro-chancellor, professors, rector, etc, are all appointed by the king. The rector, who has immediate supervision, is appointed every year. The university of Lund is similar in all respects to that of Upsal, but has never reached its great reputation. The government is about to found a new free university in Stockholm. The university of Christiania, in Norway, is the youngest of the Scandinavian institutions. It is essentially German in organization and government, and has the usual four faculties.

The university of Copenhagen, founded in 1478, is the only one now possessed by Denmark, since that of Kiel has been transferred to Germany. It has five faculties: theology, medicine, jurisprudence and political science, philosophy, and mathematical and natural sciences. A rector, chosen yearly, is the executive officer, and its general organization is like that of the German universities. - The Russian universities also are formed on the German model, and many of the professors are German; but only one, Dorpat, has a theological faculty, and the faculty of philosophy is usually divided into a historicophilological and a physico-mathematical faculty. At Kazan there is a division of oriental languages, which is said to be the most complete in the world. Dorpat is noted for its physico-mathematical faculty. The university of Moscow, the oldest established by the Russian government, has a very large and able corps of professors. The Polish university of Warsaw, founded in 1816, was suppressed in 1832, and reestablished under Russian auspices in 1869. That of Wilna, founded in 1579, and also suppressed in 1832, has not been revived.

The Alexander university of Helsingfors, which was removed from Abo after the burning of its buildings in 1827, still retains much of its former character before it came under Russian influence, and is one of the most progressive institutions in the empire. It has a chancellor, nominally the emperor, but who is represented by the minister for Finland, a vice chancellor, a rector, and a pro-rector. All the Russian universities are sustained mostly by the government. In 1875 a new university was about to be established at Tomsk in Siberia, - The university of Athena was established in 1837, by subscriptions raised mostly from Greeks resident in foreign countries. It is under the supervision of the minister of instruction, but is presided over directly by a rector or vice chancellor. There are four full faculties and a school of pharmacy, and the general system resembles that in the German universities. The university of Corfu, established by the earl of Guilford in 1823, has been suppressed since the union of the Ionian islands with Greece. - A university was established in 1870 in Constantinople, with faculties of literature, law, and the natural sciences and mathematics. It is superintended by a rector, and each faculty has a dean.

Roumania has two universities, at Bucharest and Jassy respectively. In Servia the academy of Belgrade was in 1869 erected into a university, which in 1874 had 16 professors and 229 students. The university of Cairo (El-Ashar) is the principal Mohammedan place of education in the East. The instruction includes grammar, arithmetic, algebra, logic, philosophy, and theology and law according to the four sects of the Sunnis. It has more than 300 teachers, and the number of students generally exceeds 9,000. The university of Valetta, Malta, founded in 1838, has faculties of theology, law, medicine, and arts. - The Chinese have a national university (Kwohtsz' Kien) at Peking, but little is known of its condition. Only the sons of officers of high rank are admitted to its courses, where they are educated at the expense of the government for particular service. The new scheme of education adopted in Japan provides for eight universities, but not all have yet been established. The imperial university in Tokio had in 1875 nearly 100 foreign professors. - India has three universities, at Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras, with each of which are affiliated several colleges. The university of Calcutta has usually from 800 to 1,000 students, and those of Bombay and Madras about 500 each.

They are all government institutions. Australia has already three universities, those of Sydney (1852), Melbourne (1854), and Adelaide (1874); and New Zealand has one at Dunedin (1871). - The principal universities of the United States are described in this work in special articles, excepting when the name of the institution coincides with that of the place in which it is situated, when it is treated under that title. (See also College, where they are included in the table, and Education.) The Johns Hopkins university, formally inaugurated in Baltimore on Feb. 22, 1876, will be conducted on the German system. It has an annual income, from the endowment of its founder, of $200,000. The principal Canadian universities are McGill university, in Montreal, founded in 1811, and the university of Toronto in Toronto, founded in 1827. Laval university, a Roman Catholic institution in Quebec, was established in 1852. There are also several other denominational colleges called universities, which are noticed in the articles on the several Canadian provinces. - Most of the South American countries have universities, but few of them have attained eminence.

The Argentine Republic has two, at Buenos Ayres and C6rdoba. The university of Chili, at Santiago, was founded in 1842, to take the place of that of San Felipe, founded in 1783. It has faculties of law, medicine, pharmacy, and physical and mathematical sciences, and a school of art. Bolivia has three universities, at Sucre, La Paz, and Cochabamba, each of which has faculties of theology, law, medicine, mathematics and physics, and philosophy. They confer degrees of bachelor, licentiate, and doctor in all the faculties excepting medicine, in which only that of doctor is given. Brazil has excellent colleges in Rio de Janeiro, embracing all the faculties, but no established university. There are six universities in Peru, at Lima, Arequipa, Puno, Cuzco, Ayacucho, and Trujillo. Only that of Lima, which is the oldest in America, having been founded in 1551, is of consequence. Its faculties are full, and it is attended by a large number of students. Colombia has a university at Bogota, and several inferior institutions in provincial cities.

The university of Venezuela is at Caracas; it had full faculties and 19 professors in 1874. Of the Central American states, Costa Rica has a university at San José, and Nicaragua two universities, one at Leon and one at Granada. In 1874 San Salvador voted to establish a new university at San Miguel; and in 1875 the university of Guatemala, in the city of Guatemala, was reorganized on the French plan. Mexico has now no university. - In the following table the statistics of the German, Austrian, and Swiss universities are for 1874-'5, of the Italian for 1873, and of the others for years ranging from 1871 to 1875:

PLACE.

Date of establishment.

PROFESSORS.

Tutors.

Total.

Total students.

Ord.

Ext.

ENGLAND.

Cambridge

1231

86

..

75

.

....

Durham

1833

6

8

Oxford

1149

43

100

• • • •

• • •.

SCOTLAND.

Aberdeen

1494

21

.

Edinburgh

1582

37

1,500

Glasgow

1451

30

..

1,200

St. Andrews

1411

17

• • • •

• • •

IRELAND.

Dublin

1592

40

..

• • • •

1,300

Wueen's

1850

• • • •

1,000

GERMANY.

Berlin

1810

60

59

69

188

1,824

Bonn

1786

57

26

19

102

724

Breslau

1702

50

21

32

103

1,087

Erlangen

1743

34

11

8

53

414

Freiburg

1457

33

6

9

48

318

Giessen

1607

3o

10

10

55

340

Göttingen

1734

56

23

80

109

991

Greifswald

1456

38

11

10

59

465

Halle...................

1694

47

25

21

93

989

Heodelberg

1386

39

23

86

99

534

Jena

1558

28

18

29

70

442

Kiel

1665

36

6

18

60

199

Königsberg

1544

46

9

22

77

628

Leipsic

1409

56

48

48

152

2,947

Marburg

1527

38

7

16

61

409

Munich

1826

69

10

36

115

1,101

Rostock

1419

28

3

7

38

168

Strasburg

1621

54

14

12

80

654

bingen

1477

44

12

24

80

827

Würzburg

1403

89

4

15

58

951

PLACE.

Date of es-tablisbment.

PROFESSORS.

Tutors.

Total.

Total students.

Ord.

Ext.

AUSTRIA.

Cracow

1364

70

563

Gratz

1586

40

15

21

76

834

Innspruck

1672

41

11

8

60

527

Lemberg

1784

46

1,031

Pesth

1784

140

2,296

Prague

1348

57

24

83

114

1,824

Vienna

1365

76

42

109

227

3,228

SWITZERLAND.

Basel

1460

32

14

17

63

158

Bern

1834

37

7

26

70

285

Zürich

1832

33

9

30

72

340

ITALY.

Bologna

1158

44

7

7

53

488

Cagliari

1720

21

7

2

30

78

Catania

1445

21

5

12

38

213

Genoa

1812

25

12

9

46

336

Macerata

1290

11

9

20

115

Messina

1548

25

5

6

36

101

Modena

23

7

12

42

285

Naples

1224

52

11

10

73

Padua

1222

41

9

15

65

1,121

Palermo

35

11

10

56

216

Parma

1599

33

9

5

47

226

Pavia

30

9

6

45

571

Pisa

1339

39

14

13

66

332

Rome

1245

36

3

12

51

442

Sassari

1620

8

9

14

31

66

Siena

1320

16

6

10

32

89

Turin

1405

89

15

15

69

935

SPAIN.

Barcelona

58

2,440

Granada

1531

45

706

Madrid

1836

84

5,475

Oviedo

1580

15

163.

Salamanca

1200

45

266

Santiago

1504

45

649

Saragossa..............

1474

43

826

Seville.................

1502

59

2,252

Valencia

1410

37

942

Valladolid..............

1346

32

940

PORTUGAL.

Coimbra

1291

48

40

1,500

NETHERLANDS.

Groningen

1614

21

Leyden

1575

40

700

Utrecht................

1636

23

500

BELGIUM.

Brussels

1S34

43

500

Ghent.....'.............

1816

400

Liége

1817

500

Louvain................

1426

800

DENMARK.

Copenhagen

1478

1,200

SWEDEN.

Lund..................

1668

63

563

Upsal

1477

99

1,480

NORWAY.

Christiania

1811

34

978

RUSSIA.

Dorpat

1632

37

5

22

64

811

Helsingfors.............

1827

33

3

25

61

475

Kazan

1814

76

400

Kharkov.....,

1804

80

500

Koev

1884

100

1,000

Moscow........

1755

120

1,800

Odessa................

1865

39

257

St. Petersburg..

1819

75

1,400

Warsaw.........

1816

GREECE.

Athens........

1837

• •

• •

• •

-----

....

See Crevier, Histoire de l'universite de Paris (7 vols., Paris, 1761); Anthony a Wood, "History and Antiquities of the University of Oxford" (2 vols., 1792-'6); Maiden, "Origin of Universities and Academic Degrees" (12mo, London, 1835); De Viriville, Histoire des universites en France (Paris, 1847); Bristed, "Five Years in an English University" (New York, 1852; new ed., 1874); Schaff, "Germany, its Universities," etc. (Philadelphia, 1857); Zarncke, Die deutschen Universitäten im Mittelalter (Leipsic, 1867); Sybel, Die deutschen und die auswärtigen Universitaten (Bonn, 1868); Mullinger, "The University of Cambridge from the Earliest Times to 1535 " (Cambridge, 1873); and Hart, " German Universities" (New York, 1874).