Vaucluse, a S. E. department of France, in Provence, embracing the ancient Comtat-Venaissin and the principality of Orange, and bordering on Dr6me, Basses-Alpes, Bouches-duRhône, Gard, and Ardéche; area, 1,370 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 263,451. The E. part is traversed by several offshoots of the Alps, the highest point reaching about 6,500 ft.; but in the west the surface is undulating, and there are considerable plains. The principal rivers are the Eh6ne, which flows on the W. boundary, and its affluents the Durance and Eygues. Iron ore, coal, and potters' clay are found, and there are mineral springs. Some 70,000 acres are occupied by vineyards, which yield a strong red wine of fair quality. The truffles produced are valued at about 4,000,000 francs annually. Silkworms, cattle, and sheep are largely reared. Silks, velvet, woollen cloths, linen, paper, iron, and perfumery are manufactured. It is divided into the arrondissements of Apt, Avignon, Carpentras, and Orange. Capital, Avignon. - The name Vaucluse (" enclosed valley") is derived from the fountain of Vaucluse, the source of the river Sorgue, in a cavern near Avignon. The valley of the upper Sorgue has been immortalized by Petrarch.