Vienna (Ger. Wien), a city of Europe, capital of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and of the province of Lower Austria, on the Danube, 330 m. S. S. E. of Berlin; lat. 48° 13' N., Ion. 16° 23' E.; pop. in 1870, 834,284; in 1875, 1,020,770, of whom 673,865 were in Vienna proper and 346,905 in the Vororte or communes included in the police districts, but not in the municipal jurisdiction. There are about 25,000 Protestants, 45,000 Jews, and some members of the Greek and other churches; upward of nine tenths of the inhabitants are Roman Catholics. The city is situated in a fertile plain bordered by the Wienerwald, consisting of spurs of the Styrian Alps. About 5 m. N. TV. of Vienna the Danube divides into two unequal branches, the southern and smaller of which, called the Donaukanal, after traversing the city, rejoins the main stream a few miles below. The Donaukanal receives the small river Wien and the Alser and Ottakringer creeks. The circuitous subdivisions of the northern arm have been led into a new channel, nearer to the city, about 4 m. long and 300 yards wide, which was opened to navigation on May 30, 1875. This partially obviates the dangers of inundation, from which the lower parts of the city have often suffered, and facilitates its extension in a northeasterly direction.

The Donaustadt is here being laid out. Five bridges, two of them for railways, have been constructed across the new bed of the Danube. The finest of the 14 bridges over the Wien is the Elisabethbrticke. - Vienna is one of the most attractive capitals of Europe, and has been greatly embellished since 1858. Until then high walls and deep trenches surrounded the old "city" and divided it from the 36 so-called suburbs (Vorstddte). With the levelling of the fortifications the distinction between city and suburbs ceased, and Vienna was divided into nine districts, viz.: Innere Stadt, Leopoldstadt, Landstrasse, Wieden, Margarethen, Mariahilf, Neubau, Josephstadt, and Alsergrund. All but the second are on the right bank of the Danube. The Innere Stadt, still called " the city," comprises the oldest part of Vienna, the largest squares and most notable edifices, and the new and beautiful quarter which has risen on the site of the fortifications and the broad glacis which encircled them. The Ringstrasse, a series of boulevards lined with palatial buildings and planted with trees, forms a belt around this part of Vienna, 22/3 m. long and 186 ft. wide.

Parallel with it runs the Lastenstrasse, for the accommodation of the heavy traffic; and a third belt, the Gurtelstrasse, runs along the low ramparts thrown up in the beginning of the 18th century, marking the limits of the municipal territory. The area thus included has a circumference of 16 m., and contains about 11,000 houses. The Vororte gradually assume a rural character toward the surrounding hills and along the shores of the Danube. The streets of Vienna are well paved and kept in good condition, though in the old parts they are mostly narrow and irregular. The Ringstrasse and the almost equally fine streets crossing it constitute the favorite quarter of the wealthy. The new opera house, in this locality, is magnificent in its internal arrangements, and is one of the most beautiful theatres in Europe. The palaces of the archdukes Wilhelm and Ludwig Victor are imposing specimens of the renaissance style, and the gymnasium is a conspicuous Gothic building. Other prominent edifices on or near the Ringstrasse are the new academy of fine arts, the conservatory of music, the museum of arts and industry, the central telegraph office, and the military headquarters.

Among edifices in course of erection (1876) are a Gothic town hall, the new parliament and university buildings, the imperial museums, the imperial theatre, and the exchange. The fine Francis Joseph quay is the continuation of the Ringstrasse along the Donaukanal. Remnants of the old bastions have been preserved to support prominent structures, such as the palaces of the archduke Albrecht and the duke of Coburg, and the colossal Francis Joseph barracks. The wings of the last are connected by the Francis Joseph gate, one of the few remaining gates. The Jägerzeile in the Leopoldstadt, leading to the Prater, is a broad and animated thoroughfare, and there is at least one similar main street in each of the other districts, among the prominent structures of which are the Belvedere palace, built by Prince Eugene of Savoy, with a fine public garden, the great arsenal, and the station of the Northern railway, one of the finest in the world. The most important square is the Stephansplatz, with the cathedral and episcopal palace, constituting the centre of Vienna, the Karntnerstrasse, the Graben, and other leading streets converging here. The large square called Am Hof, the Hoher Markt and Neuer Markt, and most other open spaces contain monuments and fountains.

The Josephsplatz has an equestrian statue of Joseph II., and the Schwarzenbergplatz one of Field Marshal Schwarzenberg; and on the Schillerplatz the foundation of Schiller's monument was laid, May 9, 1875. On the outer Burgplatz (palace square), the largest in Vienna, are the equestrian statues of Prince Eugene and the archduke Charles. The Burgthor (palace gate), consisting of 12 Doric columns, is also here. The inner Burgplatz or Franzensplatz is formed by the four principal wings of the imperial palace. The easternmost, the Schweizerhof, dates from the 13th century; the northern, the most recent, was erected in 1728; the Amalienhof in the west dates from the 16th century; and the southern wing, containing the largest apartments, was completed in 1670. The monument of Francis I. stands in the middle of the Franzensplatz, and there are four groups representing the labors of Hercules at the portals of the northern wing. Adjoining the palace are the imperial theatre (Burgtheater), the riding school, considered the finest in Europe and the scene of splendid pageants, the imperial library, the museums of natural history, and the cabinet of coins and antiquities. - Vienna possesses about 60 Catholic churches and chapels, three Protestant and three Greek churches, and several synagogues.

The cathedral of St. Stephen is one of the most magnificent specimens of Gothic architecture. The present edifice dates mainly from the 14th century. Its length is 354 ft., breadth 230 ft., height of nave 89 ft. The great southern tower, completed early in the 15th century, and renovated in 1860-'64, is about 470 ft. high. The cathedral contains nearly 40 marble altars; a pulpit by Anton Pilgram, rich in delicate carvings; and numerous monuments, of which that of the emperor Frederick III., with over 200 figures, is the most remarkable. Underneath the cathedral are vast catacombs. The church of Maria Stiegen, completed early in the 15th century, is another beautiful Gothic structure. The church of St. Peter is modelled after St. Peter's at Rome, and the church of St. Charles, completed in 1737, has an imposing cupola. The Augustinian church contains Canova's mausoleum of the archduchess Christine, and in the Capuchin church is the burial vault of the imperial family. The Votivkirche, begun in 1856 to commemorate the emperor's escape from assassination (1853), will be one of the finest of modern Gothic edifices. Among other notable places of worship are a Greek church and the new Jewish synagogue in the Moorish style.

The Mekhitarist Armenian convent at Vienna is next in importance to the main establishment at Venice. - In the imperial palace is the chamber of treasures, ineluding the largest known emerald; the Florentine diamond of 133 carats, lost by Charles the Bold in one of his battles with the Swiss; the regalia used at the coronation of the German emperors, said to have been taken from the tomb of Charlemagne; Benvenuto Cellini's celebrated salt cellar; and many objects of historical interest. The cabinet of coins and antiquities contains over 140,000 coins and a large collection of cameos and intaglios, vases, bronzes, and gems. The imperial cabinets of zoology and botany and of mineralogy are almost unrivalled in completeness. An oriental museum was opened in 1875. In the armory of the arsenal is a curious collection of trophies of war. The miscellaneous Ambras collection in the Belvedere derives its name from a castle in Tyrol, whence it was transferred to Vienna. Connected with it is a museum of Egyptian antiquities. The Belvedere contains the imperial picture gallery, with over 2,000 paintings by almost all the great masters. The collections of Prince Liechtenstein, Count Harrach, and other noblemen, and the academy of fine arts, also abound in remarkable works.

The imperial library, founded in 1440, has about 600,000 volumes, 20,000 manuscripts, and 300,000 engravings. The university library, founded in 1777, has 160,000 volumes; that of the archduke Albrecht contains a superb collection of engravings and drawings. The collection of manuscripts in the oriental academy is probably the richest in the world. Valuable libraries of from 10,000 to 80,000 volumes are attached to scientific institutions and convents, and to several private palaces. The university of Vienna, founded in 1365, enjoys a world-wide celebrity for the excellence of its medical school. In the summer term of 1875 the university had 3,919 students, of whom 32 were from the United States. The number of instructors in the winter term of 1875-6 was 210. Astronomical and meteorological observatories, a botanic garden, and various museums and institutions are connected with the university. The Josephinum, an academy for the instruction of army surgeons, long famous for its anatomical preparations in wax, was recently closed. The polytechnic institute has extensive chemical, physical, and technological collections.

In 1868 it was attended by 600 students, and in 1875 by 1,300. An agricultural college was founded in 1872. The academy of sciences, the geological institute, and the military geographical institute all occupy a high rank. The oriental academy prepares candidates for the diplomatic service in the East. The Theresianum, formerly accessible only to the aristocracy, now admits all classes. Among government institutions, the imperial printing office, a vast establishment, is in some respects unrivalled in its appliances. There are five gymnasiums, four liealgymnasien, eight Eeahchulen, more than 100 elementary public schools, and many special schools. The city devotes a capital of over 18,000,000 florins to charitable institutions, which are numerous and admirably managed. The general hospital accommodates 3,000 patients; in the connected lyingin hospital more than half of the illegitimate births (10,615 out of a total of 27,265 in 1874) take place, the surrounding country largely contributing to the number. - Vienna swarms with coffee houses, beer gardens, and other public resorts. The Prater, the principal promenade, is a fine park on an island in the Danube, over 5 m. long.

It contains six principal avenues, one of which is chiefly frequented by fashionable people with elegant equipages; but the avenues leading to the so-called Wurstelprater, with panoramas, swings, bands of music, and rustic kitchens, are more animated, and their gay aspect is enhanced by the varied costumes of the Austrian nationalities, as well as of Servians, Greeks, and Turks. The great exhibition, opened in the Prater May 1, 1873, was visited by about 5,500,000 persons. The rotunda, the central portion of the main building, has been preserved. (See Industrial Exhibitions.) Among other open-air resorts are the Volksgarten, with Canova's group of "Theseus vanquishing the Centaur," in a temple designed after that of Theseus at Athens; the city park on the Ringstrasse, with the Schubert monument; and the botanic garden. There are eight theatres, besides the new opera house. The Burgtheater is the best in Germany; the Carltheater is patronized by all classes; while the most popular with the masses are the Josephstadter Theater and the Volkstheater in the Prater, in which last plays in the Viennese dialect are performed. - The elevation of the city near its centre is about 500 ft. above the sea.

The climate is changeable and unhealthful; the average temperature of the year is 52°, of summer 70°, and of winter 32°. In spring and autumn the city is exposed to high winds, and pulmonary diseases prevail. The annual death rate is about 36 in 1,000. Vienna is supplied with excellent water from the Schneeberg, 40 m. distant, by an aqueduct completed in 1873, the most important modern work of the kind in continental Europe. The city is an emporium for the trade with the East. The principal articles of manufacture are fancy leather, mother-of-pearl and meerschaum articles, jewelry, kid gloves, clocks, musical and optical instruments, shawls, silks, and velvets. In the first half of 1875 the exports to the United States amounted to about 1,400,000 florins; they consisted chiefly of mother-of-pearl and horn buttons, leather, hides, furs, musical instruments, pipes, and kid gloves. The number of banks was reduced by the recent financial crisis from 69 in 1873 to 26 in 1875. Vienna is the centre of an important railway system. It communicates by steamboat with Linz and Pesth, but the shipping is inconsiderable. Horse railways cross the city in all directions. - The immediate surroundings offer charming scenery.

The heights of the Leopoldsberg and Kahlenberg (see Kahlenberg) command a view extending to the Styrian Alps on the south and the Carpathians on the east. The famous gardens of Schönbrunn, the summer residence of the emperor, about 3 m. S. W. of the city, are laid out in the formal style of the last century; they contain a menagerie and a botanic garden, with an extensive collection of tropical plants. The castle of Laxenburg, 9 m. S. of Vienna, possesses many curious relics of feudalism, and is surrounded by a fine park. Near by is the romantic Brühl valley, with the ruins of ancient strongholds. A few miles further S. is Baden, with celebrated sulphur springs, which were known to the Romans. - Vienna, originally probably a Celtic settlement, is first mentioned in history, under the name of Vindobona, as a station of the Roman legions in Upper Pannonia. It rose to strategic importance in the 2d century A. D., but was abandoned by the Romans after the incursion of the Huns in the 5th, and was successively occupied by the Longobards and Avars. It was the principal city of the Ostmark, founded by Charlemagne, and in 1160 became the residence of the dukes of Babenberg. The crusades contributed to its commercial development, and under the early Hapsburg rulers the city attained great prosperity.

In the 15th century Aeneas Sylvius, afterward Pope Pius II., testifies to the riches of Vienna and the fame of its university. The population was then 50,000. It was captured by Matthias Corvinus in 1485, and heroically defended against Sultan Solyman the Magnificent in 1529. Under Ferdinand I. it became the seat of the German emperors. In the 16th and 17th centuries it was strongly fortified, but its growth was impeded by religious disturbances during the thirty years' war, by the frightful ravages of the plague in 1679, and by the second invasion of the Turks in 1683, when the Valor of Starhemberg and the timely succor of John Sobieski of Poland saved the city. It was greatly embellished under Leopold I., and endowed with institutions of learning by Maria Theresa and Joseph II. A treaty was concluded at Vienna in 1738 between Charles VI. and Louis XV. In 1805 and again in 1809 the city was occupied by the French; in the latter year the peace of Schönbrunn was negotiated, and in 1814-'15 the congress of Vienna was held.

During the revolutionary movements of 1848 the city was the scene of serious disturbances, and after a rising in October was taken by Windischgratz. (See Austria, vol. ii., p. 146.) On Oct. 30, 1864, peace was concluded at Vienna between Austria and Prussia on one side and Denmark on the other. The opening of the exhibition of 1873 coincided with a great financial crisis. It inflicted upon the government a loss of 14,866,921 florins, the expenditures amounting to 19,123,270 and the receipts to 4,256,349, according to official returns of March, 1876.

Opera House.

Opera House.

St. Stephen's Cathedral.

St. Stephen's Cathedral.

The Congress of Vienna was a conference of the European powers held after the first fall of Napoleon to carry out the stipulations of the treaty of Paris of May 30, 1814, and to reorganize the political system of the continent. Francis of Austria, Alexander I. of Russia, Frederick William III. of Prussia, and the kings of Denmark, Bavaria, and Wiirtemberg were present, besides minor princes, and all the European states were represented except Turkey. The foremost diplomatists present were Metternich for Austria, Nesselrode for Russia, Hardenberg for Prussia, Talleyrand for France, and Castlereagh for England. The preliminary discussions opened in September, 1814, and the general acts were signed on June 9, 1815, those relating to the Germanic confederation having been signed the day before. The main results were as follows: Austria was reinstated in her former possessions except the Spanish Netherlands, and kept Salzburg, Venetia (constituting with Lombardy the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom), and Dalmatia. Most of the duchy of Warsaw was erected into a hereditary kingdom for Alexander I. Prussia recovered Posen, and acquired half of Saxony, Swedish Pomerania, Westphalia, and important territories west of the Rhine. The republic of Cracow was created, and placed under the protection of Austria, Russia, and Prussia. Norway was confirmed to Sweden as a compensation for Finland, ceded to Russia in 1809. Holland, to which the Belgian provinces were united, was recognized as a kingdom under the prince of Orange, who for cessions in Germany received Luxemburg. Hanover was erected into a kingdom, and the two Mecklenburgs, Oldenburg, and Saxe-Weimar were constituted grand duchies.

Germany, whose great mass of petty states and free cities had been mostly absorbed, was reconstituted into a confederation. Neufchatel, under Prussian sovereignty, was admitted as a canton of the Swiss confederation, and the neutrality of Switzerland was guaranteed. The former ruling houses were reinstated in Naples, Sardinia, to which Genoa was annexed, Tuscany, and Modena, while Parma was assigned to the ex-empress Maria Louisa. The papal see recovered nearly the whole of its possessions, France retaining Avignon and Venaissin. The latter power was restricted to very nearly the same territory that it had possessed before the revolution. England retained Cape Colony and Mauritius, which had belonged respectively to Holland and France, as well as Malta and Heligoland, and relinquished her other conquests. The Ionian islands Were declared an independent republic under British protection. The conclusion of the treaties, which had been delayed both by extravagant festivities and political intrigues, was hastened by the sudden return of Napoleon from Elba. The last coalition against him was immediately formed (March 25, 1815), and a few days after the signing of the treaties the battle of Waterloo was fought.