Warren, the name of 14 counties in the United States.
A N. E. County Of New York, partly bounded E. by Lake George, intersected and partly bounded S. and W. by the Hudson river, and drained by Schroon river; area, 912 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 22,592; in 1875, 23,295. The surface is mountainous, and only about one third of the county is susceptible of cultivation. There is an abundance of iron ore, and limestone, marl, and graphite are found. The Adirondack railroad and the Glens Falls branch of the Rensselaer and Saratoga railroad traverse it. The chief productions in 1870 were 5,966 bushels of wheat, 14,365 of rye, 92,322 of Indian corn, 127,261 of oats, 55,142 of buckwheat, 275,701 of potatoes, 533,467 lbs. of butter, 78,653 of wool, 26,245 of cheese, and 34,610 tons of hay. There were 3,158 horses, 5,944 milch cows, 5,551 other cattle, 20,333 sheep, and 2,166 swine; 1 manufactory of boots and shoes, 4 of lime, 1 of paper, 13 tanneries, 2 currying establishments, 1 flour mill, 21 saw mills, and 1 paper mill. Capital, Lake George (town of Caldwell).
A N. W. County Of New Jersey, bounded W. by Delaware river, separating it from Pennsylvania, and S. E. by the Musconetcong, and intersected by the Paulinskill and Puquest; area, about 550 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 84,336. The surface in parts is mountainous. The elevated portions are well adapted to pasturage, and the soil of the valleys is fertile. Iron ore, zinc, manganese, marble, soapstone, and roofing slate are found. It is traversed by the Morris canal and by the New Jersey Central, the Belvidere Delaware, the Morris and Essex, and the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 295,802 bushels of wheat, 84,252 of rye, 747,951 of Indian corn, 322,804 of oats, 72,858 of buckwheat, 81,823 of potatoes, 867,831 lbs. of butter, 45,557 of wool, and 26,401 tons of hay. There were 6,020 horses, 9,145 milch cows, 4,322 other cattle, 14,362 sheep, and 12,501 swine; 9 manufactories of agricultural implements, 18 of carriages and wagons, 13 of clothing, 11 of furniture, 2 of pig iron, 3 of forged and rolled iron, 1 of nails and spikes, 9 of iron castings, 12 of lime, 1 of wrapping paper, 36 flour mills, 5 tanneries, 4 currying establishments, and 14 saw mills.
A N. W. County Of Pennsylvania, bordering on New York, intersected by the Alleghany river, and drained by Brokenstraw, Conewango, and other creeks; area, 832 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 23,897. The surface is hilly, and the soil generally fertile. There are large forests of excellent timber. Iron ore is found. This county forms part of the great oil region of Pennsylvania. It is intersected by the Philadelphia and Erie, the Atlantic and Great Western, the Oil Creek and Alleghany River, and the Dunkirk, Alleghany Valley, and Pittsburgh railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 26,759 bushels of wheat, 13,749 of rye, 98,850 of Indian corn, 253,380 of oats, 25,763 of buckwheat, 128,078 of potatoes, 759,853 lbs. of butter, 50,806 of wool, and 39,583 tons of hay. There were 3,599 horses, 7,422 milch cows, 6,352 other cattle, 15,337 sheep, and 3,387 swine; 2 manufactories of machinery, 9 flour mills, 4 planing mills, 105 saw mills, 10 tanneries, 3 iron founderies, and 4 coal-oil refineries. Capital, Warren.
A N. County Of Virginia, intersected by the Shenandoah river; area, 200 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,716, of whom 1,105 were colored. The Blue Ridge extends along its S. E. border. The surface is hilly and the soil fertile. Iron ore, copper, manganese, and limestone are found. It has railroad communication with Washington. The chief productions in 1870 were 100,197 bushels of wheat, 15,317 of rye, 122,700 of Indian corn, 27,252 of oats, 59,144 lbs. of butter, 1,117 of tobacco, 16,072 of wool, and 2,047 tons of hay. There were 1,526 horses, 1,268 milch cows, 7,538 other cattle, 5,185 sheep, and 3,745 swine; 1 manufactory of lime, 1 leather-currying establishment, 8 flour mills, and 2 saw mills. Capital, Front Royal.
A N. County Of North Carolina, bordering on Virginia, bounded N. W. by the Warren river, and intersected in the northeast by the Roanoke river; area, 391 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,17,768, of whom 12,992 were colored. The surface is elevated and undulating, and the soil fertile. There are several valuable mineral springs. The county is intersected by the Raleigh and Gaston railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 47,484 bushels of wheat, 256,803 of Indian corn, 49,509 of oats, 23,941 of sweet and 9,409 of Irish potatoes, 51,403 lbs. of butter, 6,774 of wool, 751,045 of tobacco, and 1,818 bales of cotton. There were 1,426 horses, 2,677 milch cows, 5,164 other cattle, 3,409 sheep, and 15,734 swine; 18 flour mills, and 7 saw mills. Capital, Warrenton.
An E. County Of Georgia, bounded S. W. by the Ogeechee river; area, 450 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,10,545, of whom 6,260 were colored. The surface is undulating and the soil fertile. Granite and soapstone abound. It is intersected by the Georgia and the Macon and Augusta railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 15,037 bushels of wheat, 117,518 of Indian corn, 12,549 of oats, 32,415 of sweet potatoes, 27,203 lbs. of butter, 4,787 of wool, and 7,605 bales of cotton. There were 963 horses, 1,479 milch cows, 3,269 other cattle, 2,269 sheep, and 7,749 swine; 1 cotton mill, and 3 saw mills. Capital, Warrenton. Vii A W. county of Mississippi, separated from Louisiana by the Mississippi river, bounded S. E. by Big Black river, and intersected by Steel's bayou and the Yazoo; area, 575 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 26,769, of whom 18,862 were colored. The surface is hilly in the E. part and low and level along the Mississippi, and the soil fertile. All the rivers which border on or intersect the county are navigable by steamboats, and the Vicksburg and Meridian railroad passes through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 213,073 bushels of Indian corn, 66,227 of sweet potatoes, and 32,175 bales of cotton.
There were 1,872 horses, 2,839 mules and asses, 1,963 milch cows, 2,664 other cattle, 1,023 sheep, and 5,576 swine; 1 manufactory of railroad cars, 2 of machinery, 3 of iron castings, 3 of cotton-seed oil, and 2 saw mills. Capital, Vicksburg.
A Central County Of Tennessee, bounded N. E. by the Caney fork of Cumberland river, and drained by the Collins river and its affluents; area, 440 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,714, of whom 1,955 were colored. The surface is mountainous in the E. and hilly in the W. part, and the soil tolerably fertile. The McMinnville and Manchester railroad connects the county seat with the Nashville and Chattanooga railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 73,391 bushels of wheat, 339,250 of Indian corn, 56,348 of oats, 16,918 of Irish and 17,152 of sweet potatoes, 134,499 lbs. of butter, 27,446 of tobacco, 105 bales of cotton, and 735 tons of hay. There were 3,218 horses, 2,781 milch cows, 4,564 other cattle, 12,495 sheep, and 18,814 swine; 3 flour mills, 2 cotton mills, 4 saw mills, and 6 tanneries. Capital, McMinnville.
A S. W. County Of Kentucky, bounded N. by Green river and intersected by Big Barren river; area, 455 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 21,742, of whom 6,369 were colored. The surface is moderately hilly and the soil fertile. The county has several extensive caverns and monumental mounds. It is intersected by the Louisville and Nashville railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 190,904 bushels of wheat, 978,247 of Indian corn, 185,509 of oats, 19,964 of Irish and 21,452 of sweet potatoes, 53,183 lbs. of butter, 39,669 of wool, 2,035,159 of tobacco, and 2,154 tons of hay. There were 5,901 horses, 2,449 mules and asses, 3,965 milch cows, 7,284 other cattle, 16,344 sheep, and 39,722 swine; 12 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 2 of marble and stone work, 2 tanneries, 2 currying establishments, 2 flour mills, 1 planing mill, 5 saw mills, and 1 woollen mill. Capital, Bowling Green.
A S. W. County Of Ohio, intersected by the Miami and Little Miami rivers; area, 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 26,689. The surface is undulating and the soil highly fertile. It contains several ancient mounds and has an abundance of limestone. It is traversed by several railroads terminating at Cincinnati and by the Miami canal. The chief productions in 1870 were 427,674 bushels of wheat, 1,487,121 of Indian corn, 281,210 of oats, 157,273 of barley, 130,661 of potatoes, 574,554 lbs. of butter. 474,623 of wool, and 14,485 tons of hay. There were 7,801 horses, 6,487 milch cows, 7,491 other cattle, 19,710 sheep, and 32,836 swine; 9 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 2 of malt, 5 saw mills, and 9 flour mills. Capital, Lebanon.
A W. County Of Indiana, bordering on Illinois and bounded S. E. by the Wabash river; area, 3G0 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,10,204. About half of the county is occupied by Grand prairie, the rest is undulating, and the soil is very fertile. The Wabash and Erie canal, and the Toledo, Wabash, and Western railroad pass through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 142,342 bushels of wheat, 442,874 of Indian corn, 122,153 of oats, 27,093 of potatoes, 107,505 lbs. of butter, 46,653 of wool, and 16,195 tons of hay. There were 4,126 horses, 2,557 milch cows, 10,093 other cattle, 13,006 sheep, and 14,746 swine. Capital, Williamsport.
A W. County Of Illinois, drained by Henderson river and several smaller streams; area, 540 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 23,174. The surface is level and the soil highly fertile. Bituminous coal and limestone abound. It is intersected by the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy, and the Rockford, Rock Island, and St. Louis railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 192,002 bushels of wheat, 72,212 of rye, 2,982,853 of Indian corn, 601,054 of oats, 85,152 of potatoes, 420,268 lbs. of butter, 52,718 of wool, and 36,037 tons of hay. There were 14,230 horses, 1,215 mules and asses, 8,358 milch cows, 16,679 other cattle, 12,735 sheep, and 52,191 swine; 3 manufactories of agricultural implements, 15 of carriages and wagons, 3 of iron castings, 5 flour mills, and 2 saw mills. Capital, Monmouth.
Middle Intersected By South A S. County Of Iowa, and North rivers, and drained by several other tributaries of the Des Moines, which crosses the N. E. corner; area, 482 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 17,980. It has a diversified surface of prairie and woodland, and the soil is very fertile. Bituminous coal is abundant. A branch of the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific railroad from Des Moines terminates at the county seat. The chief productions in 1870 were 406,472 bushels of wheat, 1,925,914 of Indian corn, 169,217 of oats, 114,885 of potatoes, 382,568 lbs. of butter, 74,957 of wool, and 24,517 tons of hay. There were 7,830 horses, 5,660 milch cows, 9,826 other cattle, 24,569 sheep, and 31,582 swine; 2 flour mills, 21 saw mills, and 1 woollen mill. Capital, Indianola.
An E. County Of Missouri, bounded S. by the Missouri river; area, 350 sq.m.; pop. in 1870, 9,673, of whom 741 were colored. It has a varied surface, and the soil, especially along the river, is extremely fertile. Limestone and sandstone of excellent quality abound. The St. Louis, Kansas City, and Northern railroad passes through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 252,187 bushels of wheat, 729,010 of Indian corn, 415,375 of oats, 55,373 of potatoes, 209,662 lbs. of butter, 32,475 of wool, 296,745 of tobacco, and 3,948 tons of hay. There were 3,567 horses, 3,528 milch cows, 4,233 other cattle, 8,016 sheep, and 21,990 swine; 10 manufactories of furniture, 8 flour mills, and 4 saw mills. Capital, Warrenton.
Joseph, an American patriot, born in Roxbury, Mass., June 11, 1741, killed in the battle of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775. He graduated at Harvard college in 1759, studied medicine, and at the age of 23 commenced practice in Boston. When Samuel Adams dedined to deliver the address on the second anniversary of the Boston massacre, March 5, 1772, Warren was invited to discharge the duty, and acquitted himself with great ability. In 1775 he again delivered the address, although with considerable danger, from the increased exasperation between the troops and the citizens. In 1772 he was a member of the committee of correspondence with the several towns in Massachusetts. Later he was a delegate to the convention of Suffolk county which met to prevent Gov. Gage from fortifying the southern entrance of Boston. As chairman of the committee appointed to address the governor on the subject, he sent him two papers, both written by himself, which were afterward communicated to the continental congress. He was a delegate to the Massachusetts congress in 1774, and was made president, and also chairman of the committee of public safety. To his energy was in great measure due the successful result of the battle of Lexington. On June 14, 1775, the Massachusetts congress commissioned him as major general.
When Prescott and Putnam favored the defensive occupation of Oharlestown heights, he objected because of an insufficiency of ammunition for repelling an attack. But when a majority of the council of war determined to fortify Bunker Hill, he resolved to take part. He was warned by Elbridge Gerry against the hazard of exposing his person. "I know that I may fall," was the reply, " but where is the man who does not think it glorious and delightful to die for his country?" About 2 o'clock he went to Bunker Hill unattended, and with a musket in his hand. He was offered the command by Putnam and by Col. Prescott, but fought only as a volunteer. He was one of the last to retire from the field, and Major Small of the British army called out to him by name from the redoubt and begged him to surrender, at the same time commanding his men to cease their fire. As he turned around at the voice a ball struck him in the forehead, killing him instantly. A statue of Gen. Warren, by Henry Dexter, was unveiled on Bunker Hill, June 17, 1857. His life has been written by A. II. Everett in Sparks's " American Biography," and by Richard Frothingham (Boston, 1865).
John, an xlmerican physician, brother of the preceding, born in Roxbury, Mass., July 27, 1753, died in Boston, April 4, 1815. He graduated at Harvard college in 1771, studied medicine, and began practice in Salem in 1773. He was with the Salem regiment in the battle of Lexington, and remained at Cambridge in charge of the wounded. In June he was appointed senior surgeon to the hospital. He accompanied the army during two years, and was then appointed to the charge of the military hospitals in Boston. He joined the expedition of Gen. Greene to Rhode Island in 1778, and another against the insurgent Shays in 1786. In 1780 he gave a course of dissections to his colleagues; this led to the establishment of a medical school under his auspices attached to Harvard college, in which he was appointed professor of anatomy. In surgery he introduced many operations previously unknown in the country. In 1783 he delivered the first of the series of fourth of July orations in Boston. He published several addresses and essays, and contributed many valuable papers to the "New England Journal of Medicine and Surgery," the "Memoirs" of the American academy, and the " Communications" of the Massachusetts medical society.
John Collins, son of the preceding, born in Boston, Aug. 1, 1778, died there, May 4, 1856. He graduated at Harvard college in 1797, studied medicine with his father and in London, Edinburgh, and Paris, and returned to Boston in 1802. In 1806 he was chosen adjunct professor of anatomy and surgery in Harvard college, and in 1815 succeeded to his father's professorship, and also to his practice. He was one of the founders of the Massachusetts general hospital, of which he was principal surgeon till his death. In 1828 he became associate editor of the " Boston Medical and Surgical Journal." He made a second and a third visit to Europe in 1837 and 1852. In 1846 he was the first person who employed ether in a surgical operation. He was a founder of the McLean asylum for the insane, and was president of the Massachusetts medical society from 1832 to 1836. Besides numerous scientific papers, he published "Diseases of the Heart" (1809); a " Comparative View of the Sensorial System in Man and Animals" (1822); "Remarks on Dislocation of the Hip Joint" (1826); "Surgical Observations on Tumors" (1837); "Etherization" (1848); and " Mastodon Giganteus" (1855). A memoir of Dr. Warren has been published by his brother, Edward Warren, M. D. (2 vols. 8vo, Boston, 1860).
Jonathan Mason, son of the preceding, born in Boston in 1811, died there, Aug. 19, 1867. He graduated in the medical department of Harvard university in 1832, studied in Paris and London, and was for 20 years attending surgeon to the Massachusetts general hospital. He published " Surgical Observations, with Cases and Operations" (Boston, 1867).