Wittenberg, a fortified town of Prussia, in the province of Saxony, on the Elbe, 53 m. S. W. of Berlin; pop. in 1871, 11,567. It is celebrated for associations with Luther and Melanchthon, who are buried in the Schloss- und Universitätskirche by the. side of its founder, Frederick the Wise, and of John the Constant. The immense bronze monument of Luther by Schadow stands on the market place in front of the town hall, not far from Drake's statue of Melanchthon, erected in 1865. In 1817 the Augustinian convent where Luther resided was converted into a theological seminary. Luther's theses, originally affixed by him to the doors of the Schlosskirche, were restored in the Latin text on the new bronze doors erected in 1858, the church having been burned during the bombardment of 1760, and again injured by bombardment in 1813, and finally rebuilt in 1817. The other most remarkable church is the Stadtkirche, with Cranach's "Last Supper," introducing Luther, Melanchthon, and Bugenhagen. The town hall contains the same master's "Ten Commandments." The university of Wittenberg, founded in 1502, was united with that of Halle in 1815. The principal educational institution of the present day is a gymnasium. - Wittenberg was founded by Bernard, son of Albert the Bear, duke of Brandenburg, and previous to 1422 was the residence of the dukes and electors of Saxony. In 1547, after the battle of Mühlberg, it was taken by Charles V. In 1760 it was bombarded by the Austrians, and one third of its houses were destroyed.
It was restored by the Prussians, and in 1806 it was taken by Napoleon, who rebuilt its fortifications in 1813. In 1814 it was taken after a siege by the Prussians.