A Government Of South Russia Or New Russia, bordering on the governments of Kharkov, Poltava, Kherson, and Taurida, the sea of Azov, and the Don Cossack territory; area, 26,146 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,352,300, including Great Russians, Cossacks, Germans, Tartars, Persians, Greeks, Jews, Armenians, Georgians, Arnauts, Bulgarians, Serbs, and Roumans. The country is flat and steppe-like, excepting along the hilly shores of the Dnieper, the chief river. The soil is favorable to agriculture and the raising of cattle; some of the finest-wooled sheep of Russia are in this government. Timber' is scarce, but coal abounds. Fruits, including figs and almonds, are produced in the south, as well as wine, much of which is made from the sloe or wild plum. Silk is also produced. Yekaterinoslav was peopled with new colonies in 1752, and called New Servia, and after 1764 New Russia; since 1783 it has formed the present government, containing many cities, the most important of which are the seaports Taganrog, Mariupol, and Alexandrovsk, the fortress Rostov, and Nakhitchevan, the headquarters of the Armenians.
A City, capital of the government, on the right bank of the Dnieper, 250 m. N. E. of Odessa; pop. in 1867, 22,548. It has seven churches, a gymnasium with a public library, an ecclesiastical seminary, a botanic garden, a park, cloth and Bilk manufactories, and an annual wool fair. There is much trade with Odessa. In the vicinity is a ruined palace of Potemkin, who founded the town in 1784, and named it after the empress Catharine II.