Ala ed-Din Atha Melik, a Persian historian and statesman, born in Khorasan about 1227, died at Bagdad in 1282. He enjoyed the favor of the Mongol princes of Persia, and was for many years governor of Bagdad. His history of the Mongols, entitled "Conquest of the World," has been highly valued.
Alban Butler, an English theologian and author, born at Appletree, Northamptonshire, in 1710, died at Saint Omer, France, May 15, 1773. He was educated at the Roman Catholic seminary in Douai, France, where he became professor of philosophy and theology. He was sent on a mission to England, and was for some time chaplain to the duke of Norfolk, during which he began his "Lives of the Saints," which was completed during a subsequent residence in Paris. He afterward became president of the college of Saint Omer. He wrote several works, the most important being the "Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and other principal Saints " (5 vols. 4to, Paris, 1745), which has been several times republished (8 vols. 12mo, Dublin, 1779; Edinburgh, 1800, edited by his nephew, Charles Butler; 12 vols. 12mo, Derby, 1843; 4 vols. 8vo, New York, 1846).
Albert Bitzius, a Swiss author, better known under the pseudonyme of Jeremias Gotthelf, born at Morat, in the canton of Fribourg, Oct. 4, 1797, died at Liitzelfliih, in the Emmen valley of the canton of Bern, Oct. 22, 1854. In early life he officiated as pastor in Bern, and for some time took part in politics; but from 1837 till his death he devoted himself exclusively to literature. His writings consist chiefly of tales descriptive of the home life, of Switzerland. A complete edition of his works in 24 vols, was published at Berlin, 1855-'8. He also published several popular almanacs.
Albert Gallatin Bucket, an American author, born in Charleston, S. C, in 1807. He graduated at the medical college of South Carolina in 1832, where he became demonstrator of anatomy in 1838. In 1844 he abandoned his profession, and divided his time between miscellaneous writing and freemasonry. He was connected with several periodicals at Charleston. In 1850 he established a masonic monthly, which was maintained almost solely by his own pen for three years, and in 1858 a " Quarterly," devoted to the same interests, which he continued for two years. He acquired almost unaided the Creek, Latin, Hebrew, and most of the continental languages. He has published a "Lexicon of Freemasonry " (Charleston, 1845); "The Mystic Tie" (1849); "Principles of Masonic Law" (New York, 1856); "Book of the Chapter" (1858); " Text Book of Masonic Jurisprudence" (1859); "Cryptic Masonry," and "Masonic Ritualist" (1867); " Symbolism of Freemasonry " (1868); and "Manual of the Lodge " (1870).
Albert Jacquemart, a French author, born in Paris in 1808. At an early age he became a clerk in the ministry of finance, and in 1865 was made chief of bureau in the custom-house department. He was prominently connected with the universal exposition of 1867. His works include Histoire antique, industrielle et commercials de la porcelaine (Lyons, 1861-'2), and Histoire de la ceramique (Paris, 1872; English translation by Mrs. Bury Palliser, "The History of Ceramic Art," with 1,000 illustrations, London, 1873). - His son Jules Ferdinand, born in 1837, excels as an engineer, and has prepared many designs for some of his father's works.