American Indian Languages

See Ameri-can Indians, Languages of the.

Amos Sutton

Amos Sutton, an English missionary, born at Sevenoaks, Kent, in 1798, died in Cuttack, India, Aug. 17, 1854. He was ordained as a missionary at Derby in 1824, and sent to Oris-sa, India, where he labored 30 years, visiting England and America once, He translated the Scriptures into Oriya, compiled an Oriya dictionary, grammar, and lesson book, wrote tracts, and translated many English works. In English he published "The Family Chaplain" (2 vols., Calcutta, 1831-2), "Narrative of the Mission to Orissa," "Orissa and its Evangelization" (Derby, Eng., and Boston, 1850), "Hymn Book for Mission Congregations," and " Guide to the Saviour".

Amos Whittemore

Amos Whittemore, an American inventor, born in Cambridge, Mass., April 19, 1759, died in West Cambridge, March 27, 1828. He worked for some years as a gunsmith, but finally, in partnership with his brother and several others, began to manufacture cotton and wool cards. He soon invented a machine for puncturing the leather and setting the wires, which was patented in the United States in 1797, and Whittemore went to England to secure his rights there, but was unsuccessful. In the United States the patent was sold for $150,000; but afterward his brother Samuel Whittemore repurchased it, and carried on the business. (See Cards).

Anais Lebrnn De Bassanville

Anais Lebrnn De Bassanville, countess, a French writer, born in 1806. She was educated under the direction of Mme. Campan, and has acquired renown by her numerous school books, novels, etc, including Aventures (Tune ep ingle (1845); Les memoires d'une jeune Jille (1849); De Veducation desfemmes (1861); Les salons d\iutrefois, souvenirs intimes (1861-'4); Les ouvrieres illustres (1863); Les secrets oVune jeune Jille (1863); and Le code du ceremonial, guide des gens du monde (1867). She founded the Journal des jeunes filles, edited the Moni-teur des dames et des demoiselles and Le Di-manche des families, and has displayed much literary industry in other directions.

Anastasius. See Auersperg Grun

Anastasius. See Auersperg Grun, A. A.

Anbin Louis Millin

Anbin Louis Millin, a French archaeologist, born in Paris, July 19, 1759, died Aug. 14, 1818. He was keeper of the museum of antiquities in the national library. His principal works are: Peintures des vases antiques; Monuments antiques inedits; Galerie mytliologique; Voyage dans les departements du midi de la France; and Ilistoire metallique de la revolution francaise. His "Medallic History of Napoleon," left incomplete, was published in English by J. Millingen (London, 1819). He was the founder of the Magasin encyclopedique and Ann ales encyclopediques.

And Cnpellation Cupel

See Assaying.

And III., Kings Of Poland Sigismund I. II

See Poland, vol. xiii., pp. 645-'6.

And Lithrotrity Lithotomy

See Stone.

And Machinery Machine

See Mechanics.

And Mail Coaches Mail

See Post.

And Metric System Metre

See Weights and Measures.

And Nizam's Dominions Nizam

See Hyderabad.

And Sardonyx Sard

And Sardonyx Sard, precious stones, varieties of carnelian or chalcedony, named either from Sardis in Lydia, where they were originally found, or from the Greek σάρξ, flesh, in allusion to the flesh-like colors they sometimes exhibit. The sard is marked by concentric zones or small nebulosities in the middle of its ground, which distinguish it from red carnelian. Its color by reflected light is a dark reddish brown, almost black, and by transmitted light a deep red inclining to blood red. When it alternates in bands with white chalcedony, it is called sardonyx (sard and onyx). The name was indefinitely applied by the Romans to the various agates and carnelians. Dufrénoy designates true flesh-colored agates as sards, those with alternating white stripes as sardonyx, and the deep reddish brown or orange red agates as sardoines.