Anthony Benezet, an American philanthropist, born at St. Quentin, France, Jan. 31,1713, died in Philadelphia, May 5, 1784. His father's family, who were Protestants, removed in 1715 to London, where they became Quakers, and in 1731 to Philadelphia. In 1742 Anthony gave up the mercantile business for which he had been educated, and became instructor of the Friends' English school. He published (1762 - '7) tracts in opposition to the slave trade, and carried on an extensive correspondence for the purpose of bringing about its abolition. He founded a school for the instruction of persons of African descent, and devised his property for its benefit after the death of his wife. His funeral was attended by a large number of persons of all religious denominations, among whom were several hundred negroes.
Antoine Alexis Francois Cadet De Vaux, a French chemist, born in Paris, Sept. 13, 1743, died at Nogent-les-Vierges, June 29, 1828. Originally an apothecary, he devoted himself to the study of chemistry as applied to everyday life. He invented the galactometer, introduced a new mode of disinfection, secured the prohibition of the use of copper measures by tradesmen, procured the suppression of the cimetiere des innocents, and introduced agricultural fairs into France. In 1772 he opened a school for instruction in bread making, and in 1777 founded the Journal de Paris. He published several works on rural and household economy.
Antoine Alphonse Chassepot, a French inventor, born March 4, 1833. Like his father, he became a workman in manufactories of arms, and becoming connected with those belonging to the government, he was made comptroller in 1858, and director in 1804. He acquired celebrity by inventing the rifle known by his name, which had occupied his attention . for many years, though it was not adopted for the army until after the success of the Prussian needle gun in the campaign against Austria in 1866, when the necessity of having a similar arm to rival that of the Germans led to the hasty introduction of the Chassepot rifle in the French infantry and part of the cavalry. Chassepot derives a large income from the patent on his invention, and a lawsuit instituted in 1869 by M. Maneeaux contesting his right to it proved unsuccessful. (See Rifle.)
Antoine Angnstin Preault, a French sculptor of the romantic school, born in Paris, Oct. 8, 1809. He was a pupil of David, and his works include "Undine," "The Amazon River," "The Queen of Sheba," "Charlemagne," " Carthage," " The Adoration of the Magi," "Ophelia," "The Human Comedy," "Andre Chenier" and other pieces for the Louvre, " Hecuba" and " The Murder of Ibycus" (1863), " Hope " (1866), " Adam Mickiewicz " (1868), and "A Child's Portrait" (1869).
Antoine Auguste Ernest Hebert, a French artist, born at Grenoble, Nov. 3, 1817. He went to Paris in 1835 to study law, but soon devoted himself to painting. In 1839 he exhibited his "Tasso in Prison," which was bought by the government for the Grenoble museum, and "The Cup found in Benjamin's Sack," to which was awarded the great prize which gave him the right to go to Rome for five years at the expense of the government. He continued eight years in Italy, and made much reputation by his "Malaria," exhibited in 1850, representing an Italian family flying from the pestilence. He obtained first class medals in 1851 and 1855; and in 1866 he was appointed director of the academy of France at Rome.